Slovieni - Veneti v Rusiji
Avtor: Dr. Jožko Šavli
Originalni članek na Caranthai
Lastnik spleta: Igor Pirnovar

 

Uvodna beseda lastnika spleta    
  1. Pred-antična plemenska imena severne Evrope
  2. Tudi Rusi so Veneti
  3. Germani si prisvojijo zemljo svojih gostiteljev
    Nesoglasje
The Slovieni     A Venetic Stock in Russia

The Slovieni (Russia)
  1. The language of Slovieni survived in the dialect of Novgorod:     (title added)
  2. The Slovenich Dynasty:
  3. Slovensk becomes Novgorod:     (title added)
The Slovenci (Carantania)
  1. Contemporary political squabbles:     (title added)
  2. Not necessarily agreeable point     (title added)
  3. Khazar question     (title added)
Slovenskie kljuci

 


 

Uvodna beseda lastnika spleta

Slovieni so pomembni predvsem zaradi dveh stvari: (1) v "evropskem stičišču vzhod-zahod" predstavljajo vez med Veneti, Vendi, Slovani in drugimi evropskimi narodi, ker so praktično na tak ali drugačen način prečkali ali pa izhajali iz tega evropskega stičišča in (2) zaradi imena, ki potrjuje povezavo med našimi sedanjimi imeni in starodavnim imenom Sloveneti. Obe ti dve točki sta izredno pomembni in ju bi bilo potrebno obravnavati, če že ne istočasno pa vsaj z isto mero zavzetosti.

(1) Evropsko stičišče vzhod-zahod: Predvsem se moramo zavedati, da je to "stičišče" mogoče videti tako v (a) zemljepisnem kot v (b) družbeno zgodovinskem smislu. Naj se najprej lotim te zadnje (b) točke, ker bo tukaj o njej manj govora, saj jo obravnavamo praktično povsod, ker je v resnici ena od osnovnih postavk "venetske teorije", ki ne trdi le, da so Veneti staroselci v Evropi ampak, da so v pradavnini poseljevali ne le nek abstraktni prostor med Atlantikom in Pacifikom ampak, da so poseljevali med drugim tudi celotni evropski kontinent. Torej ponovno, da bo bolj formalno

(1.b) Družbeno zgodovinski vidik: V družbeno zgodovinskem smislu trdimo, da so v pradavnini Veneti poseljevali celotni evropski kontinent. Ta trditev ima dalekosežne posledice, ki jih ni mogoče ne utajiti, in ne ignorirati, to pa je prav tisto, kar očitamo uradni znanosti in akademikom predvsem zgodovinarjem in jezikoslovcem, ki so se doslej vztrajno trudili prav to - namreč, utajiti, ali pa ignorirati pravo venetsko preteklost. Vendar pa je res tudi, obratno, če so sklepanja in zaključki, ki slonijo na venetski teoriji napačna, se tudi tega ne bo dalo niti utajiti in ne ignorirati!
(1.a) Zemljepisni vidik: Vprašanje je ali so Slovieni morali prečkati večino jugovzhodnega dela srednje Evrope in nato vzhodne Evrope, da bi iz območja Jadrana po takrat že dobro poznani "Jantarjevi poti" prispeli na območje Novgoroda in jezera Ilmen v severovzhodni Rusiji, ali pa so v tem delu Evrope, ki naj bi ga prečkali bili staroselci? Za obe ti dve varianti obstajajo enako močni argumenti in kot že rečeno imajo tudi tokrat oboji dalekosežne posledice. Zato bo verjetno resnica nekje v sredini, namreč, da bo držalo oboje. Bili so staroselci, kot tudi bo držalo, da so Jadranski Veneti migrirali proti severovzhodu. Poglejmo si stvari od bliže.

S stališča "venetske teorije" ni nobenega dvoma, da so Veneti v Evropi bili staroselci. Kot bomo videli, na to možnost opozarja tudi sam dr. Šavli tukaj v tem sestavku in sicer v odstavku, ki sem ga sam naslovil "Khazar question" ("Vprašanje Huzajev"). Takole pravi:

... S tem v zvezi si drznemo opozoriti na Kulturo Tripolje (Ukrajina), ki je bila ostanek "kulture trakaste keramike" približno iz časa (4000 - 2000 pr.n.š.). Kot vemo je res, da so Veneti izvirali iz substrate te kulture, katera je po letih 2000 pr.n.š. bila preplavljena z indoevropejci, ki so prišli iz vzhoda.
Ne bom se spuščal v smiselnost navajanja prihoda Indoevropejcev kot razlagajo kompromitirane IE teorije, saj je konec koncev res, da je do kontakta med Evropo in Indijo resnično prišlo, poudarim naj le, da je do tega kontakta prišlo vsaj nekaj tisočletij prej kot po zmotnih IE teorijah privzema tudi dr. Šavli. Za naš argument, ni pomembno ali so Veneti v Evropi že nekaj tisočletij več, kot je privzel dr. Šavli, saj je že 2000 let pr.n.š. več kot dovolj, da Venete lahko vidimo kot staroselce ne le samo vzdolž Jantarjeve poti, ampak kot tudi že dolgo trdimo, vse od Atlantika pa skoraj do Pacifika. Seveda o teh časih ni veliko podatkov in tudi dr. Šavli ne govori dosti o tem obdobju. To obdobje preskoči do časa, ko priznani zgodovinski viri, v tem primeru Tacitus (cca. 56 - 117 po.n.št) - torej več kot 2000 kasneje omenjajo Venete na področju Baltov in Fincev. Ne, da je s tem kaj narobe, prav nasprotno dr. Šavli je imel edino prav, da se je tako vztrajno držal priznanih zgodovinskih mejnikov in navedb, ter že samo na osnovi le teh dokazal, vse povezave in sorodnosti med Slovieni in Veneti ter drugimi Slovani. Že te dokaze mu uradna zgodovina še vedno ne priznava in nemočna oporeka. Toda, če upoštevamo, kar nam je dr. Šavli razodel in dokazal, lahko s pomočjo jezikoslovja gremo še nekaj korakov dalje in sicer v čas pred tem, do katerega nam dosedanj odkriti tradicionalni zgodovinski viri ne poročajo!
Pred-antična plemenska imena severne Evrope

Rimski viri (Res gestae of Augustus) [rGdA-26] navajajo, da so se prebivalci Jutlanda imenovali Kimbri (Cimbri). Pliny starejši (cca. 77 po.n.št.) navaja grškega pisca Philemona (cca. 362-262 pr.n.št.), ki je zapisal: "Kimbri imenujejo Baltik Morimarusa (Pomerania)" (Naturalis Historia, 4.95). Po pravkar navedenem lahko sklepamo, da so Grki vedeli za Baltik in za Kimbre že v 5. stol. pred Kr. Na drugi strani poznamo grške mitološke zgodbe, ki povezujejo Severni Jadran in jantar, kar nas pripelje spet do "jantarjeve poti". Pri iskanju povezav v zvezi s Kimbri na Internetu v "Wiki enciklopediji" najdemo navedbe, ki v isti sapi govorijo tudi o etniji z imenom Ambroni, recimo:

Kimbri (Cimbri) so bili germansko ali keltsko pleme, ki so skupaj s Teutoni (Teutones) in Ambroni [slov:Jantarci] (Ambrones), ogrožali rimsko republiko v poznem 2. stol. pred n. št.
Besedi Kimbri in Ambroni očitno lahko povežemo z besedo amber (jantar). Toda za nas tukaj je najbolj zanimiva povezava iz 5. stol. pred Kr. med Grki, Baltikom, "jantarjevo potjo" in seveda Veneti, ki jih direktno sicer nihče ne omenja, vendar pa je njihova prisotnost vidna v jeziku in imenih, ki jih najdemo ob Severnem morju in obalah Baltika, ki je bil izvor jantarja. Zanimivo je, da imajo Grki za jantar čisto svoje ime in ne tistega, ki nam ga sugerirajo imena ljudstev, ki naj bi bila povezana z njim, namreč amber, medtem pa poznajo staroselsko ime nabiralce jantarja - "Kimbri". Poglejmo kako to dragoceno smolo imenujejo v različnih jezikih. V grščini je "jantar" "ηλεκτρον" (elektron), v latinščini je "electrum, sucinum" ... (sujtinum = "ki se sveti"), v nemščini je "Bernstein" (beere, [angleško:berry], = "jagoda", "ki se nabira"), v angleščini "amber" in francoščini, kjer pomeni oranžen "d'ambre".

Da bomo videli kaj vse to pomeni za nas in kaj nam tukaj razkriva jezik, moramo stvari nanizati v ustreznem vrstnem redu. Torej, lahko sklepamo, da so stari Grki poznali Baltik po jantarju. Ime "Kimbri" izgleda podobno besedi "amber" in je verjetno povezano z jantarjem (nemško:"Bernstein"). Izvor nemške besede skriva pot do venetskega pomena "beri, brati, pobirati, nabirati", kar potrjuje tudi angleška beseda berry = "jagoda", (ki se nabira). Tudi medveda, ki nabira jagode in med, v germanskih jezikih kličejo "bear, Bär". Beseda "amber" je tudi torej blizu venetski besedi "beri, brati, pobirati, nabirati", kar so bili tudi prebivalci Baltika, ki so "nabirali" "čudoviti kamen" ali jantar. Torej imeni "Kimbri" in "Ambri" lahko razlagamo po "Slovansko" skozi "beri, brati, pobirati, nabirati". Iz jezikovnih podobnosti med tako različnimi jeziki kot so germanski in slovanski je mogoče edino sklepati, da sta na začetku ti dve različni etnični skupini živeli v sožitju, torej je čisto možno, da so poleg številnih drugih besed sprejeli tudi ime za narod, saj je takrat beseda pomenila le ljudi, ki prebivajo na neki lokaciji in prehod imena prebivalcev lahko označeval tudi kontrolo in last ozemlja. Tako so verjetno prvotno venetski nabiralci jantarja Kimbri (ki nabirajo) praktično Slovani, ko so se začeli mešati s sčasoma številčnejšimi prišleki Germani sprejeli germanski jezik obdržali pa so staro ime Kimbri.

Tukaj nam je jezik odkril vpogled vsaj pol tisočletja, če ne kar tisočletje ali pa še več v preteklost, glede na to, da bolj daleč v preteklost, ko gledamo daljše časovne intervale med spremembami odkrivamo. Jezik nam torej odkriva, da so takratni prebivalci ob obalah severnega morja imeli imena, ki se jih da razlagati s pomočjo venetskega (slovanskih) jezikov. To so časi preden so v Skandinavijo prodrli Germani iz Vzhoda. Po njihovem prihodu, so z Veneti živeli v sožitju, o tem nam priča nemški jezik, v katerem obstaja močan vpliv venetskega (slovanskih) jezikov. Do začetka naše ere to je do časa, ko o teh krajih poročajo prej navedeni grški in rimski viri so si Germani že bistveno opomogli medtem, ko so Veneti oslabeli in celo postali begunci pred razširjajočima se antičnimi velesilami Grki, Etruščani, in nazadnje Rimljani.
Sem uvrščam prav novgorodske Sloviene, ki so začeli migrirati proti severovzhodu že v času, ko je Etrurija bila še na vrhuncu svoje moči in so si afriški prišleki toliko opomogli, da so začeli izvajati pritisk na in izrivati domorodske Venete!
Do tega časa so Veneti bili že dobro zasidrani vzdolž najbolj pomembnih trgovskih poti iz Evrope v Malo Azijo in Bližnji vzhod tako po evropski strani ob krožni poti Donava, Črno morje, Jadran, gotovo pa tudi po vzhodni strani iz severa Evrope po rečnih poteh Rusije.
Tudi Rusi so Veneti

Na vzhodu (v Rusiji) so Veneti trčili ob Skite in Huzarje, ki so v tisočletju pred migracijo jadranskih Venetov sprejeli ali vsaj spoznali venetski jezik prav tako kot so Veneti sprejeli nekatere jezikovne in kulturne vplive od Skite in Huzarjev kot tudi Germane, ki so prodirali proti zahodu. Od kod drugod kot pa od vzhodnih narodov naj bi sicer Rusi dobili starejše besede (ne novejše tujke) kot so "хорошо, спасибо [spasi ego], собака (пес), карандаш, гулять, бумага, корабль ..." (harašo, spasiva, sobaka, karandaš, guljat', bumaga, korabl'...), ki nimajo slovanskih korenov! To področje zasluži bolj resne raziskave, da bi lahko z gotovostjo ugotovili prave časovne razpredelnice, predvsem je zanimiva beseda корабль, ki izgleda zgodnje-germanska, kar kaže na zgodnji stik Venetov z Germani, ki bi ga lahko uvrstili v skoraj 2000 letni časovni interval vse od začetka prvega tisočletja pr.n.š pa do konca prvega ali začetka drugega tisočletja po.n.š.

Torej, tudi Rusi so Veneti, ki pa so se zaradi oddaljenosti in predvsem zaradi kontakta z drugimi narodi kot so ga imeli srednje evropski Veneti oblikovali na drugačen način - sprejeli so drugačne običaje in jezikovne vplive. Toda dejstvo, da se je v ruščini ohranilo toliko arhaičnih venetskih besednih oblik in arhajične semantike, ki je blizu edino slovenskim jezikom, recimo beseda "семья, семейство (род)" [family] < "семя, семечко (зерно)" [seed, grain], ruščino odlikuje po tem, da je najbolj arhaičen slovanski jezik ne moremo ignorirati!

Vzporedno se ponuja vprašanje ali so Skiti (Sarmati), Huzarji in Peucini (Bastarni=[pomešani]) sprejeli jezik od Venetov, ali pa so ta plemena ostanki v pradavnini relativno enotne etnične venetske gmote, ki se je kasneje pomešala z drugimi etničnimi skupinami. Ni izključeno, da bi v tej skupini našli tudi germanska plemena, ki so se za razliko od Baltov popolnoma ločila od svojih nekdanjih gostiteljev Venetov. To vprašanje otežuje tudi dejstvo, da v času prvih rimskih zapisov o severnih in severovzhodnih evropskih narodih in o relacijah med njimi niso vedeli prav dosti, kar je razvidno že iz samih zapisov tedanjih avtorjev. Tako Tacitus odkrito priznava, da ne ve ali naj uvršča Balte (Peucini [ki živijo na pečinah]), Vende, in Fince (Fenni) med Germane. Prav tako je Fince napačno razglasil za nomade saj danes vemo, da so le ti imeli že davno pred našo ero visoko razvito lončarsko obrt. Poleg tega so že več tisočletij pred antičnimi časi na tistih območjih cvetele bogate kulture z razvito obrtjo in lončarstvom, in je zelo malo verjetno, da bi za časa Tacita tam našli le nomade. Seveda so na severu vedno živeli tudi Eskimi, katere antični pisci napačno imenujejo Fince (Fenne).
Tacitus:Peucini, Venedi, and Fenni. Here Suebia ends. I do not know whether to class the tribes of the Peucini, Venedi, and Fenni with the Germans or with the Sarmatians. The Peucini, however, who are sometimes called Bastarnae, are like Germans in their language, manner of life, and mode of settlement and habitation. Squalor is universal among them and their nobles are indolent. Mixed marriages are giving them something of the repulsive appearance of the Sarmatians. The Venedi have adopted many Sarmatian habits; for their plundering forays take them over all the wooded and mountainous highlands that lie between the Peucini and the Fenni. Nevertheless, they are on the whole to be classed as Germans; for they have settled homes, carry shields, and are fond of traveling - and traveling fast - on foot, differing in all these respects from the Sarmatians, who live in wagons or on horseback. The Fenni are astonishingly savage and disgustingly poor. They have no proper weapons, no horses, no homes. they eat wild herbs, dress in skins, and sleep on the ground.
Germani si prisvojijo zemljo svojih gostiteljev: Na podlagi jezikovnih dokazov lahko sklepamo, da so po svojem prihodu iz Vzhoda na prag Evrope prvotno germanska plemena bila gostoljubno sprejeta in so med staroselskimi Veneti morala živeti v sožitju kar lep čas, da se je v njihovem jeziku lahko izoblikoval tako mogočan venetski (Slovanski) jezikovni odtis. Zakaj se to sožitje ni nadaljevalo do popolne stopitve teh dveh etnij lahko samo ugibamo, verjetno prav to tudi potrjuje dejstvo, da so Veneti tako na široko poseljevali evropski prostor in predvsem kot staroselci bili prisotni tudi tam, kjer so jih takratni imperiji (velesile) obranili pred germanskimi vplivi. Kljub vsemu pa so nam značilnosti narodov, ki so takrat pod vplivom tega venetsko germanskega kontakta nastali in seveda tudi okoliščine, ki jih najdemo kot starodavno zapuščino tedanjih časov, lahko v veliko pomoč pri iskanju odgovorov.

Rimska poročila iz severa Evrope so najverjetneje nastala med Germani, ki so svoje skupnosti začeli spreminjati v hierarhične in bolj agresivne organizacije, ki so se začele oblastniško obnašati od svojih več stoletnih in v preteklosti enakovrednih družabnikov Venetov katerih družbena struktura je bila ploščato organizirana družba enakopravnih, česar vrhunec je kot kažejo številni indikatorji od Baltika do Jutlanda in tudi globoko v notranjosti Skandinavije končna germanska prilastitev ozemelj svojih "miroljubnih in enakopravnih" gostiteljev Venetov. Tacitus je po vsej verjetnosti izoblikoval svoje mnenje o takratni situaciji na severu Evrope v taki na novo nastajajoči hierarhično organizirani germanski družbi, ki je zelo verjetno tudi do svojih sosedov in prijateljev postala nestrpna. Da se Tacitus ne zna odločiti ali gre pri Baltih, Fincih in Vendih za Germane, edino potrjuje dejstvo, ki nam ga razkriva tudi jezikoslovje, namreč, da so vsaj Veneti in Balti (Bastarni=[pomešani]) ter Germani dolga stoletja pred prihodom Rimljanov na sever, živeli v skupnem sožitju. Tudi Tacitov navedek, da so Vendi vdirali preko gorovja na področje "nomadskih" Fincev je potrebno tolmačiti bolj preudarno, verjetno gre za boje med Vendi in Germani ali pa njihovimi zavezniki, pri čemer lahko zaključimo, da so na drugi strani gorovja torej na področju jezera Ilmen že nekaj časa gospodarji Veneti, ki so kot migranti iz področja Jadrana našli zatočišče med sorodnim in podobnim vzhodnim prebivalstvom, kar so v resnici bili predniki Rusov.

Nesoglasje: Ob tem naj poudarim, da se ne strinjam z razlago dr. Šavlija, ki Vzhodne in Južne Slovane etnično tako drastično ločuje od Venetov. Strinjam se sicer, da je pri vseh mogoče videti različne etnične lastnosti, toda kljub temu, da je od vseh slovanskih jezikov najbolj popačen, ni mogoče zanikati, da v ruskem jeziku najdemo med vsemi slovanskimi jeziki najbogatejši zaklad arhaične venetske semantike.
Naj ponovim že na drugem mestu zapisano namreč, da je med vsemi slovanskimi jeziki ruščina v zadnjih stoletjih prejšnjega tisočletja pod vplivom svoje monarhije in mednarodnih porok ruskega plemstva doživela največ neslovanskih sprememb. To je še najbolj opazno v ruskem besednjaku, v katerem so "poslovanili" ogromno francoskih, nemških in angleških besed. Kljub temu pa se je v ruščini tudi ohranilo veliko starih arhaičnih slovanskih oblik, ki bolj kot katerikoli drugi slovanski jezik podpirajo najbolj opazno in edinstveno karakteristiko slovenskega jezika, namreč njegovo arhaičnost!
Podobno je z jeziki Južnih Slovanov, kjer lahko najdemo nekatere arhaične oblike besed, ki so se v slovenščini izgubile. Ne bom trdil, da Južni in Vzhodni Slovani niso asimilirali več neslovanskih etnij kot Slovenci in, da so na določenih področjih skoraj povsem izgubili svojo staro slovansko podlago, toda to ne pomeni, da nekoč niso imeli istih skupnih prednikov in, da se med njimi niso ohranili otočki prav teh "pravih" starih skupnih prednikov! Slovenski jezik se sicer pri tekmovanju za lovoriko najstarejšega ali najbolj arhaičnega slovanskega jezika enakopravno meri z ruskim jezikom, ker je v dosti večji meti kot ruski ohranil arhaično strukturo (slovnico), toda prav to je dokaz, da Venete lahko vidimo kot prednike vseh Slovanov. Dejstvo, da so se na različnih področjih bolj ali manj pomešali z drugimi etnijami, absolutno ne razveljavlja tega argumenta.
(2) Ime Slovieni: Res, da je njihovo ime Slovieni že samo po sebi dovolj zgovorni zgodovinski podatek, ki mu je dodatno težo dal še Nestor v stavku: "Noričani to so Slovieni"! No to je Pavel Tulajev, avtor brošurice "Veneti:predniki Slovanov" prevedel kot "Noričani to so Slovani"! Marsikdo tukaj sploh ne bo videl razlike, toda ime Slovieni nosi ključ do originalnega imena Sloveneti, Slovinti > Slovinci. Tukaj se v interpretaciji imena brez upoštevanja slovnice povsem izgubi prava teža za tem imenom, zato ni mogoče preveč grajati napačnega povezovanja Slovienov s Slovenci. Saj je vendar dovolj, da je že Nestor povedal, da so "Slovienci" bili "Noričani". Kljub temu, da so tudi etimološke in jezikovne raziskave potrdile podobnosti med "Slovienci" in Slovenci, še vedno to ni tako pomembno, kot dejstvo, da je ime izpeljanka iz besede "slovo" in iz pomena "govoriti", torej slovet, slovenet, sloveneti > sloveneci". Prav to je ponovno dokaz, da gre za ene in iste Venete katerih ime Vendi je pač nemška popačenka!

Toda to je le del celotne zgodbe. Drugi del smo že na dolgo in široko obdelali zgoraj, ko smo ugotovili, da je imena starodavnih plemen ob obalah Severnega morja in ob Baltiku mogoče razložiti s slovanskimi jeziki ter, da so povezana z nabiranjem jantarja in po jantarjevi poti tudi z Grki, ki so na severu Evrope še enkrat trčili ob Slovenete katere so sami imenovali enet(e):

Sloveneti   >   Ένετόί (Enetoi)

  Lastnik spleta: Igor Pirnovar

 

 


O r i g i n a l n i   dr. Š a v l i j e v   č l a n e k


 

 

The Slovieni
A Venetic Stock in Russia

They were the founders of the Slovenia there,
which later was called »The Republic of Novgorod«

The discovery of common roots represents a new base of friendship between Russians and Slovenians

by Dr. Jožko Šavli

Quite by chance I came across an interesting article entitled "Wie die Sloviene an den Ilmensee kamen" (How did the Slovieni reach Ilmen Lake), which was issued in the magazine "Welt der Slaven" (Munich 1985). The publisher is the well-known linguist and Slavist Heinrich Kunstmann, who strongly believes he can prove, that the Slovieni at Ilmen Lake (Russia) originated from the "Illyrian, Makedonian and Thracian". Indeed, Kunstmann's article is very instructive and reflects a great linguistic knowledge. But his argument is not convincing enough. What's the matter?

The well-known Russian chronicler Nestor mentions the appearance of the Slovieni race among the first Russian tribes in his "Povest' vremennych let" (11th/12th century AD). According to Nestor, they settled around the Ilmen Lake south of Sankt Petersburg, and founded the city of Novgorod. - It is certain, that the Slovieni of this area came from elsewhere. But Nestor does not state, where did they migrate from and when did this happen. Therefore, several scholars researched their primordial homeland, and they are still doing so.

The early settlement area of the Slovieni (Russia)
Slovieni in Russia. Slovieni in Russia.

Some time ago, I myself tried to explore this question by adducing findings of fact from Tacitus (Germania, 46), who quotes, that the Veneti are making incursions across the territory of the Peucini (Balts) into the territory of the Fenni (Finns). Apart from Tacitus (ca. 56 - 117 AD) there are no other charters, from which we could conclude, that a migration wave of the Veneti really reached the area of Ilmen Lake, i.e., that of Novgorod (Russia). But several other evidences lead us to such a conclusion. The first one is the fact, that Nestor's Slovieni preserved their original Venetic name. Indeed, the Veneti called themselves Sloveneti, abbreviated Sloventi (Matej Bor). In the Alps developed from this name the form Slovenci (Carantania), at the Baltic coast that of Slovinci (Pomerania), and in the present-day Novgorod region that of Slovieni (Russia). - Cf. my article "The Vends and the Slavs" (opens in new window).

The Venetic language was spread over several peoples, making them the present-day »Slavs«. However, only the original Venetic race, not because of their language, but because of their ethnological peculiarities, preserved the primordial Venetic name. It also seems to be preserved in the name of the Slovakians (the Slovakian woman is called Slovenka), as well as in that of the Swedes (svensk - Swedish is an abbreviation of »slovensk« - Slovenian). Indeed, the question of the Veneti - Sloventi is very ample, it deserves a particular research.

In this article I want to point out only the problem of two peoples, who preserved the Slovenetic name: one was found in the extreme north-east in Russia (Slovieni), the other one in the Alpine south-east region (Slovenci). A comparison of several peculiarities of both ethnic groups make it possible to infer their Venetic autochthonism.

 

The Slovieni (Russia)

Tacitus, it is true, indirectly quotes the settlement of a group of Veneti in the then Finnic territory. That this group was called Veneti in the West is evidenced by the following facts: Still in the 16th century, on a "carta marina", elaborated by Olaus Magnus, the Finnic Gulf is denoted as: Mare Finonicvm sive Sinvs Venedicvs (I.H.P.:Finnish Sea or Venetic Bay). The Sinvs Venedicvs (Venetic Gulf) could only have been named after the Slovieni (Novgorod), at that time already subjected to the supremacy of Moscow.

Slovensk (Novgovord)
Slovensk (Novgovord).
Slovensk (Novgovord) in the 1st century AD (reconstruction).
The settlement was composed of wooden houses.

Further on, recently researchers with a Novgorod dialect, as published by the miscellany »Ocerki kulturi Slavjan« (Moscow 1996), discovered astonishing similarities between the Slovieni and the Western Slavs (Veneti). As reference, I adduce two of these testimonies.

 

The language of Slovieni survived in the dialect of Novgorod:
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The excavations at the St. Sofia Cathedral in the Novgorod Citadel (kremlin) brought to light a large number of birch-bark inscriptions. A. A. Zaliznjak, who examined many of them, stated that:
the Novgorod dialect developed directly from the ancient Slav (i.e. Venetic) language, and that some phonetic, morphological, morphosyntactical, and lexical isoglosses are connected with the Western Slav languages and with the Slovenian ... (Lisjak, ibidem, 72). - S. M. Gluskina, a linguistic scholaress, but says, that the language of the ones (i.e. Slovieni), who settled the Novogord area, developed separately from that of the other Slavs, because at that time the phonetic process of the second palatalization appeared, which lasted there for some generations and was an isolated linguistic continuum (Lisjak, ibidem).

I think, these statements confirm Tacitus' quotation, from which one must conclude that Nestor's Slovieni only could have originated from the ancient Veneti (Sloveneti), who in the 1st century AD still settled in Central Europe.

The Venetic or Slovenetic settlement in the present-day Novgorod area is also witnessed by many Slovenian names all around this city. They could have arisen only in a previously Finnic territory. Later, when the Venetic (Slovenetic) language widely prevailed, it still possessed the proper ethnic characteristics of the Veneti (Sloveneti) in confront to their Russian neighbours. The latter, it is true, were of the same language, but they, in my opinion, preserved in their tradition many ethnic elements of the older substrate (customs, phonetic peculiarities in their speech...). Therefore, they manifested a particular ethnic entity, which could not have been overlooked by other groups.

With regards to the »Slovenian names« in that region, we are surprised to learn, that the same Ilmen Lake at one-time was called Slovenskoe morje (Slovenian Sea). A minor river in this area, today known as the Slavjanka, used to be called Slovenskaja reka (Slovenian River) until the First World War. Moreover, in the city of Staraya Russa, located on the southern bank of Ilmen Lake, the following story has become a legend:

Two warriors, brothers Sloven and Rus, as they moved from the Black Sea area far to the North, had been looking for quite some time for a good place to settle down. At last, they came to a beautiful lake. They named it Ilmen, after their sister. And, following the advice of the Magi , the older brother founded the city, Slovensk-the-Great. And, he named the river 'Volkhv', to commemorate the wise Magi, or, Volhv, in Russian. The younger brother founded the town Rusa at the confluence of two rivers. And, he named those two rivers 'Polist' and 'Porusya', after his wife and daughter.

Indeed, the first founded township of the later Novgorod, on the northern part of Ilmen Lake, was called Slovensk. In the aforesaid story, the Slovenian (Venetic) and the Russian ethnic entities are still distinguishable. The well-known Slovenian historian, Jože Pirjevec (Trieste), found the interesting data in the city library of Novgorod, that the first princess there was called Slovenka (Lisjak ibidem, 61).

Since so many references point to "Slovenian" names, the only correct conclusion that can be drawn is, that almost in its entire first period the region of Nestor's Slovieni was called Slovenia. But there is still more to it! We have witness of the very existing Slovenian dynasty called Slovenich.

 

The Slovenich Dynasty:

In 870, Vadim I (Vladimir) finally abdicated († 872). He was followed by Godoslav, a Varyag (Viking), and the prince of Kiev, who married Umila, Gostomysl's daughter. But it seems, that Godoslav only held the title of a Slovenian prince. Indeed, according to ancient traditions, already in 862, the inhabitants of Slovensk invited his son Rurik I to become their ruler. Then, with the initial interruptions, Rurik's dynasty governed in (Nestor's) Slovenia also. - How the name Novgorod came about?

The centre of the administration of the Slovieni was first in Gorodišce (pron. gorodishche, meaning a hill fort). It was situated on the isle in the middle of the Volhov River. In the 10th century, new settlements were created close to this centre on both sides of the riverbanks. On the one side, where the Kremlin (citadel) was, the cathedral of St. Sophia was erected, in 989. In the 11th century, Prince Jaroslav had his new residence built on the other side, and called it Jaroslavovo dvorišce (pron. yaroslavovo dvorishche).

 

Slovensk becomes Novgorod:
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In 886, Oleg transferred the capital to Kiev. Novgorod, however, remained the centre of foreign trade, and in 997 it obtained self-government. One of Oleg's successors was St. Vladimir I the Great (of the Rurik line), Prince of Kiev and All Russia († 1015), grandson of St. Olga. He was the first Russian ruler to embrace Christianity. In 1136, Slovenia achieved independence from Kiev, and it became the capital of an independent republic. In 1044, Vladimir II († 1052) granted city status to all settlements on both sides of the Volhov River. At that point in time the name Novgorod (new city) was officially introduced. It was the expression of the sovereign Slovenian (Venetic) Republic now called Great Novgorod, that embraced the whole of Northern Russia to the Urals.

The new capital of the ancient Slovenia (in Russia), Novgorod, was so important and rich, that the state itself started to become known as the Republic of Novgorod or solely Great Novgorod. It is very interesting, however, that a particular quarter of the new city was named Slovenski konec (Slovenian quarter). It stretched out behind Jaroslavovo dvorišce. On its edge, the Slovenski holm (Slovenian hills) are raising, on which later the Sts. Peter and Paul Church was erected in ca. 1406.

Medieval Novgorod
Medieval Novgorod and the city plan.
View on medieval Novgorod and the city plan, indicating the Slovenski konec with the Slovenski holm (Slovenian hill).

This Great Novgorod was the first and the only republic in Russia. It gained control of a vast swath of territory in Northern Russia and was a centre of trade. It was far less autocratic than the other Russian principalities of those times. The Prince was elected by a council of nobles, also known as the "Novgorod Vece" (pron. veche), which had the legislative competence. It was the ancient parliament, the democratic assembly of representatives of all city parts or all free people in most important cases. The Vece not only elected, but also exiled the princes. Although, they held supreme military and judicial powers, the princes had no administrative function. This power was vested in elected magistrates. However, the first popular assemblies were disorderly, and power was gradually amassed by the aristocracy.

The strength of the republic rested on its economic prosperity. Situated on the great trade route to the Volga valley, it became one of the four chief trade centres of the Hanseatic League. German merchants had a colony in Novgorod. The enterprising merchants of Novgorod extended the power of the republic over the entire north of Russia, levied tribute even beyond the Urals, and founded many colonies. The citizens of Great Novgorod escaped the Mongol invasion of Russian territory, after 1236. With Alexandr Nevskij on the head they also repulsed the attacks of the Swedes (1240) and of the Teutonic Knights (1242). At its height, in the 15th century, the population of the Novgorod Republic rose to ca. 400,000. Its splendour during that period, its hundreds of churches, its great shops and arsenals, its huge fairs, have all furnished rich themes for later Russian art and folklore.

The 15th century, however, also witnessed the start of Novgorod's long struggle with Moscow for supremacy. Internecine disputes among the republic's leaders weakened it in the face of growing Muscovite strength. Although it became a vassal of Moscow after the Muscovite invasions, in 1456 and 1470, Novgorod was allowed to retain its self-government. It was not until 1478 that it came under Moscow's complete control and lost its freedom. Novgorod retained its commercial position until St. Petersburg was built in 1703.

The cathedral of St. Sophia and the church of Sts. Peter and Paul (1406)
Novgovord, the cathedral of St. Sophia and the church of Sts. Peter and Paul (1406).
Novgorod - The cathedral of St. Sophia and the church of Sts. Peter and Paul (1406) found on the Slovenian Hill. The latter, as it seems, still reflects a Slovenian touch.

 

The Slovenci (Carantania)

In this article, the reader's attention was directed to several similarities between the Slovieni (Russia) and the Slovenci (Carantania), as referenced by the Russian scholars A. A. Zaliznjak and S. M. Gluskina, who adduced the linguistic similarities between both ethnic groups, as well as many Slovenian (Venetic) names. But there are many other similarities.

Regarding their ancient state organization there has to be particularly pointed out the great conformity between the ancient Slovenian and Russian people's law (consueto). It is very possible that the ancient Russian people's law prevalently descended from that of the Slovieni. Its similarities with the people's law of the Slovenci must be searched in the common Venetic (Sloventic) origin and tradition.

Without having any knowledge of the existence of the Veneti, the well-known Slovenian historian, Josip Mal (Mal, Probleme 1939), draw people's attention to this problem already before the Second World War, when he referred to the work of authors like Vladimirskij-Budanov or T. Taranowski. Like in Novgorod, the popular assembly in pre-feudal Carantania was also called Veca (pron. vetchah). In this (national) assembly the delegates, called "good men", were the peoples' representatives, who elected the "Prince (duke)". Among the aforesaid similarities, the Veca is the most characteristic one on the judicial field. Carantanians also elected magistrates, etc. Both, the Slovieni (Russia) and the Slovenci (Carantania) are the evidence of an ancient State organization, which was based on social structure and on territory.

 

Contemporary political squabbles
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Nevertheless, scholars already as a rule are reckoning Slovenians to the group of Southern Slavs, who demonstrate a whole different juridical tradition and social structure. Beside the ignorance, under such circumstances the forced subjugation to a state ideology, the Yugoslav (Southern Slav) one, is evident. The Southern Slavs (Yugoslavs) have to be regarded as the ancestors of Slovenians, on the other hand they should have appeared as »separatists«. Milko Kos, a well-known Slovenian historian says:

In the period between the end of the 6th and the end of the 9th century AD, a Slovenian does not differ from his neighbours of the same stock and blood in the South and South-East... (Kos, Zgodovina 1955).
This statement, it is true, was given without the necessary argumentation, but it must have been written in accordance with the ideology of the State, which financed the academic institutions.

Some years later, Francé Bezlaj, the Slovenian linguist, just because of the so great structural diversity of the Slovenian language in contrast to the Southern Slav ones, concluded, that a Slav tribe must have arrived in the Eastern Alps (i.e., the historical Slovenian territory) already before the supposed great migration wave from the Balkans in the 6th century AD (Bezlaj, Eseji 1967, 122). Then, with regards to the Slovenian language he also envisaged further »waves« and said:

There is an astonishing great number of Russian - Slovenian lexical parallels in the Slovenian vocabulary. They are not limited to the defined dialectical environs only, they are found all over Slovenia. The majority is found in the western area... One can conclude, that the »Easterlings« arrived among the last migration wave, and settled at the most exposed and the poorest soil... (Bezlaj, Eseji 1967, 132, 133).

In this way, the Slovenian question of origin was somewhat corrected, but it was not explained in a persuasive way. In his statement Bezlaj ascribed the aforesaid parallels to the supposedly "preceding migration wave", as assumed by him. But the parallels, it is true, are prevalently found in dialects of western Slovenian territory. He overcame an evident contradiction with the explanation, that the »Easterlings« were one of the last ones who arrived, and that they must have settled on the poorest soil (Bezlaj, Esseji 1967, 132). But even this territory, in regards to Slovenian linguistic and cultural traditions, is the most archaic one. Besides, the same migration wave, which first was considered to be a "previous one", now became "the last one". Thus, a new contradiction.

Kremlin (citadel) of Novgorod
Kremlin (citadel) of Novgorod.
View on the very well maintained Kremlin (citadel) of Novgorod.

 

Not necessarily agreeable point
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So many discrepancies regarding the Slovenians are also found with other authors. They can only be solved by taking into consideration the existence of the ancient Veneti. Their original language was gradually widely spread to many other peoples, who from the ethnic point of view never were Veneti. In this way the »Slavs« appeared. Such a denomination is, now as before, an academic construct. It was shaped on linguistic similarities only, and it became the base for the Slav and Southern Slav ideology. Its unreliability becomes clear, if we, for example, should have reckoned to the »Romans« also the Spanish speaking Mexicans, Argentineans etc., or to the »Germans« the English speaking Americans... Yes, Slovieni and Slovenians, until now, one could not have foreboded that the common roots go back to prehistory. The question of the origin of the »Slavs« must be revised again.

 

Khazar question
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((( Concerning the origin of Khazars as a direct connection between them and the Veneti is not known. But we think about the mission, that St. Cyril carried out among the Khazars in the early 9th century. He and his brother Methodius thereafter were missionaries among Slovenians (from the linguistic point of view: Veneti) in Pannonia and among Moravians. The saint brothers spoke the Slav language very well, which they knew from their native Salonika (Macedonia). After our sondages, ancient Macedonians spoke a Venetic language. Now, one must ask, how did St. Cyril carry out his mission among the Khazars? The conclusion is, that they only could have spoken a Slav (in fact a Venetic) language. In this connection we dare to warn of the Tripolje Culture (Ukraine), which was a remainder of the Band Ceramic Culture (ca. 4000 – 2000 BC). The Veneti, it is true, originated from the substrate of this culture, which after 2000 BC was overflown by the so-called Indo-Europeans, which arrived from the East. Thus, it is very probable, that the Khazars spoke a Venetic language, which was similar to the Slav. )))

 

Bibliography:

  1. Heinrich Kunstmann: Wie die Sloviene an den Ilmensee kamen, in: Welt der Slaven (Halbjahresschrift für Slavistik, Jg. XXX, 2, N.F. IX, 2), München 1985
  2. Bruno Volpi Lisjak: Cupa, prvo slovensko plovilo in drevaki /Cupa, the first Slovenian sailing gear and the canoes/, Trst 2004, 61 ff. - For the existence of the Slovensk name, B. V. Lisjak quotes the annals of the Holopievsky monastery on Mologa River and other authors.
  3. Milko Kos, in: Zgodovina Slovencev /Slovenian History/, Lublana 1955, pp. 33, 34
  4. France Bezlaj: Eseji o slovenskem jeziku /Essays about the Slovenian language/, Lublana 1967, p. 122
  5. John Nikolls: The House of Rurik, in: The Augustan Society Omnibus 14, Torrance (Calif.) 1993, p.19
  6. Ocerki kulturi Slavjan /Outlines of the Slav Culture/, published by the Institut Slavjanovedenia i balkanistiki (Rossiskaja akademija nauk), Moskva 1996, pp. 86 - 93
  7. Josip Mal: Probleme aus der Frühgeschichte der Slowenen, Lublana 1939, p. 120 ff.

 

Slovenskie kljuci
by Simone Arnoffi

Slovenskie kljuci
The surroundings of Izborsk (west of Pskov), Russia.
The surroundings of Izborsk (west of Pskov), Russia.

This discovery was made by Simone Arnoffi, a young student of Russian language and culture from the Treviso area of Venetia, Italy. On a student trip to the surroundings of St. Petersburg and Izborsk, which is 30 km west of Pskov, he came across the area's well known water sources called Slovenskie kljuci (pron. klyutchi), literally meaning Slovenian springs. Not long ago, we introduced in Carantha the one-time Slovenia (Venetia) in Russia, as the Great Principality of Novgorod or Slovensk as it was first called until the 15th century AD. We quoted already many Slovenian names, which were preserved in this region until today. (cf. current article above The Slovieni).

Waterfall called "Slovenskie kljuci"
Waterfall called 'Slovenskie kljuci'.
The waterfall called "Slovenskie kljuci" near Izborsk, in the region of Pskov (Russia).

Simone Arnoffi's current research adduced another Slovenian name found in the area. In today's Slovenia, the etimon "kljuc" or "kluc" has been conserved only in the meaning of "key". However, in the original Croatian language, which is close to Slovenian, the word "kljuc" still means a water source. This reminds us of the name Kluc, as the creek is called, which flows under the main street of Trieste (now Via Carducci). At one-time, this street was known as Klutsch Street.

 

 

 


 

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