Proto-indoiranski jezik   (iz Wikipedije)
Priredil: Igor Pirnovar

Originalni članek iz Wiki:
Indo-European languages

Uvod

Problem IE teorij

xyz 2

 


 

Uvod

GlejTudi: p r i p r a v a


Descriptive phonology

Proto-Indo-Iranian consonant segments
Labial Coronal Palatal Velar Laryngeal
dental/

alveolar

post-

alveolar

first second
Plosive

voiceless

*p *t *ĉ *č *k  
voiced *b *d *ĵ *ǰ *g  
aspirated * * *ĵʰ *ǰʰ *  
Fricative

voiceless

*s *š *H
voiced (*z) (*ž)  
Nasal *m *n  
Liquid *l *r *  
Semivowel *y *w  
PII vowel segments
High *i *ī         *u *ū
Low     *a *ā    

In addition to the vowels, *H, and *r̥ could function as the syllabic core.

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Two palatal series

Proto-Indo-Iranian is hypothesized to contain two series of stops or affricates in the palatal to postalveolar region.[1] The following table shows the most common reflexes and origins of the two series (Proto-Iranian is the hypothetical ancestor to the Iranian languages, including Avestan and Old Persian):[2][3]

PIE PII Sanskrit Proto-Iranian Avestan Old Persian Nuristani
*k̂ ś ([ɕ]) *ts s θ ċ ([ts]) / š
j ([ɟ]) *dz z d j ([dz]) / z
*ĝʰ *ĵʰ h ([ɦ])
*k/kʷ c č č č
*g/gʷ j ([ɟ]) ǰ ǰ ǰ / ž
*gʰ/gʷʰ *ǰʰ h ([ɦ])

Laryngeal

Proto-Indo-European is usually hypothesized to have three to four laryngeal consonants, each of which could occur in either syllabic or non-syllabic position. In Proto-Indo-Iranian, the laryngeals merged together as one phoneme /*H/. Beekes suggests that some instances of this /*H/ survived into Avestan as unwritten glottal stops.

Accent

Like Proto-Indo-European and Vedic Sanskrit (and also Avestan, though it was not written down[5]), Proto-Indo-Iranian had a pitch accent, indicated by an acute accent over the accented vowel.

Historical phonology

The most distinctive phonological change separating Proto-Indo-Iranian from Proto-Indo-European is the collapse of the ablauting vowels *e, *o, *a into a single vowel, Proto-Indo-Iranian *a (but see Brugmann's law). Grassmann's law, Bartholomae's law, and the Ruki sound law were also complete in Proto-Indo-Iranian.

A fuller list of some of the hypothesized sound changes from Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Indo-Iranian follows: