Triglav (Trihead, Trinity)
Original link:
By: Dr. Jožko Šavli
Page owner: Igor Pirnovar


Introduction by the owner of the page.
  1. The question of the relationship between Celts and Veneti.
    Astronomy hidden in an ancient language.
Triglav (Trihead, Trinity)     (by Dr. Šavli)

Svetovit     (by Dr. Šavli)

The Vends and the Slavs     (Dr. avli -- v angleščini)



Introduction by the owner of the page

Since I wish to talk here primarily about Trihead (Trinity) or Triglav, I took the liberty to move the starting article in original Dr. Šavli's article entitled The Vends and the Slavs at the end, after the paragraphs dedicated to Triglav and of course its relative Svitovit. I hope he will not be angry about this.
The Trihead (Trinity) or Triglav is best known to public by the just mentioned "highlighted" names. However, there exist a large number of Venetic inscriptions where this Deity bears a similar name with a slightly different translation but which has the same overall as well as spiritual meaning, namely, Three-man (Three-men) which in original Venetic is written as TROMUŽIJE and in all Slavic languages means "muž, muži, mužie" i.e. "man, men, manly, ..." Many inscriptions were found in an area where Hot springs were used to treat rheumatism, and were translated very consistently as votive offerings to this particular Deity as part of a prayer expressing gratitude for the treatment [v-Savli-p:297]

Beyond the Venetic inscriptions the Trihead (Trinity) or Triglav is a rather common archaeological artifact found throughout entire Europe. Though there is plenty of evidence about its mythological significance and its Venetic origin, some believe Triglav (Trihead) was a Celtic Deity.

Triglav (Trihead) is Slovenian natiomal symbol
Slovenian coat of arms. My suggestion for a more representative new flag. My suggestion for a new coat of arms. My suggestion for a new coat of arms. My suggestion for a new coat of arms.
Slovenian coat of arms. Suggestion for a more representative new flag. A few of my suggestions for a new coat of arms.

The confusion is not likely to be resolved soon, particularly because of the deep division between the proponents of two different schools of thought, that view European ethnic makeup in an almost irreconcilably different ways.

The question of the relationship between Celts and Veneti

(1) The old school sees the West European civilization evolving earlier and separately from the eastern, albeit due to linguistic peculiarities, which never had been properly explained or addressed, they had to connect them somehow, namely, they both - the earlier stock of western tribes and the later eastern tribes apparently shared their fictive prehistoric Indoeuropean homeland from which they one after another ventured towards their final destination in Europe with an almost 1000 years or even larger time lapse between their departures. Of course such a theory has absolutely no scientific backing, for instance there exists no historical or other archaeological evidence, but most importantly is an utter nonsense according to linguistic evidence.
This school of thought represents the continuation, and is very much in line with the so called "Indoeuropean (IE) theory", which was devised to scientifically support the 19th century idea of western superiority. To support their theory the IE pseudo scientists turned to linguistics - which at the time was in its infancy, and was only built on immature antique linguistic tradition. In antiquity they viewed the languages of indigenous Veneti (Pelasges), hence Slavs as uncultivated and "Barbaric", not worthy any consideration nor reference, which made their linguistic theories suspended in the air, with no foundation, as if the world began with ancient Greece and Rome. Unfortunately, west European linguistics still suffers immaturity, because it too never took into account, that all European languages contain the fundamental elements from the language and dialects of the indigenous Europeans, and which indeed, are best preserved in the Slavic languages. (Ugro-Finnish languages were too far away from newly emerging Etruscan, Greek and Roman ethnicities to linguistically really matter.) This is the missing element, with which it is possible to properly explain the cultural an linguistic division in Europe, and which on the other hand, the IE theories exploited for all the wrong reasons, namely only to support their claims about the superiority of West European cultures and peoples. For a long time the dividing cultural and ethnic European line was conveniently defined and masqueraded behind some linguistic abstraction with no proper explanation and was innocently called the division into Centum and Satem language groups, whereby the Centum represented Celtic, German, Romance, and the Satem group Slavic, Albanian, Armenians,... languages.

Linguistically, this division is not based on much more than what is a rather ridiculous distinction of how in each group the letter "C" is being pronounced, essentially demanding that writing similar to the current writing systems were in place at the time when the IE languages and ethnicities were first being formed, which indeed, is laughable. Though this linguistic division may actually make sense, its explanation is completely false. How inadequate it is, becomes evident as soon as one realizes that Centum languages could not have developed earlier than after the first arrivals of the non-Europeans (Sea people - a mix of Anatolians, North Africans and Asians), which initiated the formation of Etruscan, Greek and Italic ethnicities, assimilating predominantly Venetic (Pelasgean) i.e. Slavic foundation. (Of course, here I am not mentioning other western groups here like Basques, etc).

The bottom line for old school of thought: Though, as we have seen, there is some validity in such cultural divisions along language lines in Europe, the IE theories from their outset were devised for the wrong reasons which proved not only to be scientifically and linguistically questionable but can, indeed be classified as pseudo science! Beside this the hallmark of this school of thought is the strict separation of European ethnic space, with a well masqueraded idea, namely, that the less advanced nations belong to Satem group. In this setting Celts belong to the Centum group. Since it is very hard to ignore the affiliation of Slavs with Veneti, unofficially the two (Celts and Veneti) belong in opposite sides of this European ethnic divide. (I said "unofficially" because, due to here exposed controversies, to this day they did not find a space for Veneti in IE theories.) Not surprisingly, many would like break the above association of "late" Slavs with "early" Veneti by proving that Veneti also belong to Centum group.

(2) The other school of thought is not entirely united on the issue of what the relationship between Veneti and Celts is. (2.a) There are those who see the Veneti and so called Continental Celts as related nations, who at one point in history were ethnically very close if not the same, but later become two distinguished ethnic entities. (2.b) And then there are those following Dr. Šavli who believe Continental Celts were not ethnically the same group as Veneti, and that they had only adopted the language of Venetic majority. Though both of these premises are plausible especially if we consider that Celts might have been small travelling militias, which offered their military and policing services to the indigenous Veneti in their settlements, however, that raises the question of ethnicity, namely, how possible is it that the majority gives the language to the minority, but that minority shapes the folklore, as the proponents on this side claim. Indeed, I do have many misgivings about the last (2.b) propositions, and the fact that they apparently shared the same Deity Triglav (Trihead) is also one of my concerns. Nonetheless, after recent successful decipherment of most of the European and Anatolian "Celtic inscriptions" by the Slovenian Venetologist and researcher Anthony Ambrozic one thing became clear to all of us, namely, that in the areas which until recently were considered to have belonged exclusively to Continental Celts, a language very similar to that of Veneti was also spoken.

Regardless of the disputes about the relationships between the Veneti and Celts, one can notice a much larger body of documented evidence exists on the Slavic i.e., Venetic side, than can be gathered from all other West European and Celtic rather anecdotal artifacts combined. The evidence exists in the form of medieval chronicles, and in the form of Slavic mythology and folklore. More importantly the traces can be found back to Indian Brahmanism and Sanskrit consistently connecting the two with the ancient beliefs which are matched by the descriptions of religious ceremonies and the meaning of Venetic Deity Triglav (Trihead) documented and so eloquently explained by medieval chroniclers. Indeed, dwarfed by this are the desperate attempts by western etymologists and dilettantes to invent Celtic mythology with regards to this undeniably Venetic Deity. Not that there is anything wrong with such explanations, only if they are considered without the alternative Venetic prospective, they represent a rather bleak and distorted picture, in the lieu of the Slavic explanation, which without the doubt is certainly the correct interpretation. Though we have a long way to go before these two views will augment each other, things are starting to look a little better. Here is one such example, where a serious researcher will have no trouble finding both views: ( (will open in new window)). The following explanation is from this link, and though it is not very far from what it should be, I can not refrain from stressing that the mention of the "Three Stone Hov" and the names of the heads referring to the stars of the "zodiac" are totally unfounded - a wild guess and a wishful thinking, or an invention of some mysterious hocus-pocus!
Instead we should try to understand the pragmatic thoughts behind seemingly odd ideas. The Trihead is one of them and the graves with three corners belong to the same ideas as well as the "Three Stone Hov". Triheads are surely like the four headed "the father of Ages" or a symbol of time and its division in four seasons or three terminuses. All heads had of course their names and they were related to stars on the zodiac.
Though the above may very well be a hint for further explorations, and indeed, may prove to be an adopted and adapted version of the original Venetic mythological beliefs, I regret the fact that such a sound and overwhelming evidence making its case for the Venetic theory, is so degraded that it is reduced to the competition for recognition with what does not seem to be much more than an extension of popular pagan beliefs which are building on an imaginary Celtic mythology and other popular European mysteries. My discontent is actually not at all with the well meaning enthusiasts exploring Celtic culture, but rather with the academics who should by all means be interested in this subject, and should make their findings and opinions about these issues known. In particular one would expect that Slovenian ethnologists, historians and linguists would get involved, since in Slovene culture the closest associations to our topic central item, namely, the Triglav (Trihead) Deity is exclusively found as an integral part of Slovenian psyche, where it is still massively celebrated not unlike in the ancient Indian beliefs the Himalayan mountain peaks are celebrated. Mt. Triglav is indeed viewed by every Slovenian as one of the main Slovenian national identity defining symbols, which even adorns Slovenian flag, and state as well as many other Slovenian national symbols.

The most striking of all is the fact that Mt. Triglav does not have three peaks but rather a very prominent single one, which is the proof that the meaning of this ancient Venetic word and the toponym Triglav (Trihead) is a symbolic one, and that it represents a single point of warship, which in turn has three functions interpreted in a mythological or religious sense as Trinity, also found in Brahmanism where it appears as "Trimurti", members of which are Vishnu, Shiva and Brahma. Here the important thing is to realize that in all Slavic languages similar words to Sanskrit's "Vishnu" are the words with a set of appropriate meanings designating "heights, heighten, high, higher, up, upper,...".

Astronomy hidden in an ancient language: Unless you are familiar with Slavic languages you may not to the fullest appreciate the findings which connect Brahmanism, Sanskrit, Slavic languages and the astronomy through the words explained here, because the words are connected in a peculiar logical and semantic ways. Our starting point is the word "Vishnu" which is one of the three Deities associated with a Himalayan mountain called Mt. Meru, and with which, indeed, we draw parallels here to our Mt. Triglav. Through the meaning of the word "Vishnu" in Sanskrit which means either "God of the of the upper regions" or "equinox" we arrive to the similar Slavic words "višina, višno, in dialect: višnu" with the same meanings "high, higher, up, upper". Indeed, the word "equinox" does not have a directly corresponding translation, nevertheless, its meaning denoting the time when our sun is at the highest path on the celestial hemisphere does correspond exactly! Moreover, another word in Slavic languages comes to the aid, since it describes the "sun's path on the celestial hemisphere" ("the ark" or sun's trajectory on the skies), the word is "svod". What makes this word relevant, and indeed, very important in this argument is the fact, that its root meaning is to flow, to run, to lead the way. The meaning of ark or hemisphere is not likely to have a related or the same root meaning as shown above (flow, run, lead), and indeed there exists a perfect Slavic word that fits into a proper semantic tree explaining a rounded thing, an ark exactly - the word is "obod".

The crux of the matter here is the realization, that the word "svod", though semantically unrelated to the words for "ark, or something rounded", in other words it is not part of the semantic tree which starts with the root meaning "vod, voditi", yet logically it is very much related to a path of the sun and thus to the "equinox", which is the longest path the sun ever makes across the sky. This, indeed, proves the antiquity of the word "svod" and its relationship to an advanced ancient culture that studied celestial space and events. If these conclusions are correct we indeed can claim the language in question is an ancient one, when the words were created to truly contain the meaning of things they named.

But, there is yet another trinity preserved also in Sanskrit in the word trikalaM representing the triple meaning "past, present, future", which as described below in Dr. Šavli's article entitled Triglav, can indeed, be interpreted as the three dominions "heaven, earth, and underworld" assigned to the individual heads of the famous golden three-headed statue of the God Triglav, and as Dr. Šavli tells us, was documented by the chroniclers Ebbo and M. Prieflingensis in the early 12th century AD.

There also exists a place name in mountainous region of northern Thessaly in central Greece, called Trikala, just like the Sanskrit word trikalaM mentioned above. The word "kal" [LV-VvT:ch06p20] is also often found as a toponym in Slovenia describing mountain peaks, meaning "a needle, or a wedge that pricks through a seed shell during germination" signifying growth towards the sky. The fact that Veneti left a strong imprint in Sanskrit, and that there exist striking similarities between Indian and Venetic religious beliefs with regards to Trinity and its relationship to the mountains, makes all other theories about the ancient European three-headed God almost irrelevant. Following are a few pictures of these pagan mythological entities:

Triglav (Trihead, Trinity) throughout European continent
Statue of the Trinity from Marne France Etruscan Trihead. Mt. Triglav. The "Triglav" (three head) stonehead found at Glejbjerg.
Trinity (France) Etruscan Trihead Mt. Triglav Scandinavian Trihead

The number three, does have a special place in human psyche, but in the case of our Trihead (Trinity) or Triglav we should take a better look, since its meaning of mythical or religious significance as either as "past, present, future" or later "heaven, earth, and underworld" is far more important as o whole or a singular point of warship than its numerical value, suggested by the appearance the above three-headed artifacts. The symbolism of three worlds, three places, three different eras or the obvious three time sequences takes precedence over all other explanations. There is yet another Venetic or Slavic Deity that is very consistent with the above the Triglav, it is called "Svetovit". In translation it means the World Watcher. As you will see in Dr. Šavli's article below it is a four faced Deity watching over the four sides of the sky. I only mention it here because it shows a consistent Venetic mythological pattern, with traces far back into the prehistory.

Since I have rearranged the original order of Dr. Šavli's: paragraphs to expose only the topics related to God Triglav (the three-headed) and God Svetovit (the world-showing), I need to bring in view his rather important statements, that my reshuffling effected unfavourably:

Dr. Šavli: "The Vends and the Slavs": In a short article like this one, I cannot render many examples of the above exposed extensive problem. In comparing the differences between the Vends (Western Slavs) and the Slavs (Eastern Slavs), I only wish to present two typical figures from Vendic mythology: God Triglav (the three-headed) and God Svetovit (the world-showing). Those and other deities do not appear in the mythology of Eastern Slavs (meaning Russians) and of Southern Slavs (Illyrians, Thracians), even though scientists are presenting to us a unique Slav mythology.
Following are the original Dr. Šavli's articles.



By: Dr. Jožko Šavli;     Original link:

At the beginning of the 12th century AD the Vendic people in Brandenburg and Pomerania were still of pagan belief. At that time, their biggest centre was tetin (Stettin, Szcsecin) which is set on the mouth of the Oder River at the Baltic Sea. It is also today an important port, which belonged to Germany before WW2, but today it is Polish.

We have the records from the chroniclers Ebbo (ca. 1155) and Monacus Prieflingensis (ca. 1160), who under the same title "Vita Ottonis episcopi bambergensis" report that in tetin there was to be found, at that time, four pagan temples, and that the most important of them was dedicated to the god Triglav. His temple was high on a hill. Its walls were adorned inside and outside with human and animal shapes, painted with indelible colours. In the temple was kept a treasure of gold and argent cups, musical instruments, and decorated horns destined for libations.

The God Triglav simulacrum had three golden heads. A veil covered his eyes and mouth. The priests said that if he did not see and speak, he nearly would simulate to ignore the human sins. The three heads represented his three dominations: heaven, earth, and underworld. His temple was encircled by a sacred hurst and grassland, in which a black horse pastured. The horse was used for presages. This happened in such a manner: the horse was led through nine lances, fixed in the soil; if he did not touch one, the presage was favourable, and vice versa.

In 1127, Bishop Otto of Bamberg, the apostle of Pomerania, let destroy the Triglav simulacrum, and one of the heads was sent to the Pope in Rome. But another similar statue, situated on the nearby isle of Wollin, was saved, because the Vendic priests were hiding it.

Three-faced sink
Slovensk (Novgovord).
The three-faced sink unearthed at the Magdalensberg ( entlenska gora) in Carinthia, Roman period. It is very probable that it referred to the worshipping of the three-headed deity of Triglav.

Back in history of Carantania (Slovenia), the worshipping of Triglav had already been testified during the Roman period, when the province of Noricum still flourished in this territory. On the one-time sacred mountain called today Magdalensberg ( entlenska gora) in today's Carinthia, a three-faced sink had been unearthed, and a three-faced beaker was found in the nearby field of Svatne (Zollfeld). Because the Christianization of Slovenians dates back to the 8th century AD, only very few traces of worshipping former pagan deities have been preserved.

Mt. Triglav (2864 m) in Slovenia
Slovensk (Novgovord).
Mt. Triglav (2864 m) in Slovenia. It is called "three-headed" but it does not have three heads (summits). The name refers to the deity of the universe, which was first represented by a great mountain.

However, the highest mountain in today's Slovenia, Mt.Triglav (1864 m), was very probable named after the one-time three-headed god as described above by the chroniclers Ebbo (ca. 1155) and Monacus Prieflingensis. This mountain does definitely not have three peaks (heads); therefore its name is certainly not a geographical, but only a mythological one. Such a statement was made already in A. T. Linhart's historical book (1791), in which he ascribed to Triglav three dominions: the atmosphere, the earth and the water.


By: Dr. Jožko Šavli;     Original link:

Svetovit temple
Slovensk (Novgovord).
The Svetovit temple in Arcona on the island of Rügen or Rujana, in the Baltic Sea (reconstruction). The temple was destroyed by the Danish king Valdemar, in 1168 AD.

On the vast island called Rujana in the Baltic Sea, today Rügen, there used to be on the site of Arcona a temple consecrated to god Svetovit (Svantevit, Sventovit). The chronicler Saxo Grammaticus described him in his "Gesta Danorum" (ca. 1190/1216) as a god of four heads. He was four-faced, as one can see on his other idols, preserved until today. The chronicler substantiated many facts, which reflect the role of this deity in the creed of the Vendic people in Rujana. In short, his relation to the people is as follows:

The simulacrum of god Svetovit kept in his right hand a horn and in his left an arch. Once a year, after the crop, a holiday was celebrated in his honour. Whereas the people were waiting before the temple, the priest took from the simulacra the horn, which each year was filled to the top with wine. When a drop of wine was lost, a bad crop was predicted for the next year. Therefore, the priest ordered his people to conserve any disposable grain. If the horn seemed to remain full, a good crop was announced...

The attributes of the god were a saddle, a bit and a magic sword. The temple of Arcona was built of wood and it was painted variously. Two fences encircled it. A white horse was dedicated to him, who could have been mounted or led to pasture by the temple priest only. The horse was also used for presages. When the people wanted to know the oracle concerning the next war, pales in three rows and in equal interwalls were set up before the temple. Then, after the prayers, the horse was led through the rows. If it began to step forward with the right foot, the prediction was propicious. When it only one-time made a step with the left foot, the prediction was inauspicious....

Svetovit statue
Slovensk (Novgovord).
The Svetovit statue of Husiatyn (Zbrucs) close to Krakow in Poland as it was put once before the sconce. He was a fourheaded god. Each head faced a different direction. Svetovit's four heads were believed to oversee the universe from all directions, so that he would not miss anything.

The temple of Svetovit in Arcona was destroyed by the Danish king Valdemar, in 1168 AD. But the worshipping of this god was spread into the much larger Vendic territory of that time. Proof of this is his magnificent statue found in Husiatyn (Zbrucs) near Krakow.

Sventovit with four faces
Slovensk (Novgovord).
A wooden figure in miniature that represents Sventovit with four faces, 9th century, Poland

In the Roman period, the Greek writer Strabon (68 - 20 BC) reported that at the outspring of the Timava River east of Aquileia, there was the temple of Diomed at that time, and that the Vends (Veneti) of that area sacrificed a white horse to him each year. It is very possible that Diomed was only the Greek interpretation of Svetovit. The Adriatic Vends called him Belin (bel - white, clear).

The symbolic colours of the sacred horses are very probably designed to demonstrate Triglav as the god of the universe and Svetovit as the god of the light and sun. They might have become the later mentioned Belobog and Cernobog (the white and the black god) of Lusatia. The "black" remained for the unknown universe, the "white" for the concrete life on earth.

The god Svarog/Svarozic is a unique deity, who is to be found among the Vends and also among the Slavs (Eastern Slavs). Only Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg ( 1018) mentioned him. In relation to his chronic, this god was worshipped in the town of Rethre or Riedegost, in the country of Redari (Mecklemburg-Strelitz). Several research workers insist that he did not pertain to the original phanthom of the Vends (Western Slavs). The well-known philologist Jagic (Vienna, 19th/20th century) considered him a result of very intensive commercial relations with Eastern Europe in that period.


The Vends and the Slavs
By: Dr. Jožko Šavli;     Original link:

A nation, in sense of the national model of the 19th century, is still today stamped with an identification mark of a linguistic group. But such conception is definitely not true. For example, English speaking Americans, English/French speaking Canadians or Spanish speaking Mexicans... or even the four languages speaking Swiss, etc., each one of them must be defined as a nation. And it was not any different in historic and in pre-historic times.

Such a question must also be connected with the origin of the so-called Slavs. They are only a linguistic "national" group, and certainly not an ethnical one. However, in sense of the 19th century conception, they were considered to be descendants of the "Ancient Slavs", like the Germans from the "Ancient Germans". The ethnical group of "Ancient Slavs" was purely an academic construction. An easy demonstrable error, for they did never exist.

Despite the fact, that the existence of the Slavs was only a matter of ideology and "national" pride, the pan-Slav movement needed a "historical" clue to confront the German nationalism. The latter propagated that the "Slavs" are inferior people from an historical point of view, and that only German expansionism into Slav territories could bring them social and cultural progress. Among the Slavs this propaganda triggered off the wide spread motto "Long live the Slavs" (ein Hoch den Slaven), an invention that provided a so-called common original homeland for the "Ancient Slavs". And this homeland could only be found in the territory of the greatest Slav nation, in Russia. So, the "Ancient Slavs" were collocated in the area behind the Carpathians. But this had never been proven! Nevertheless, such an idea about Slavs was introduced into scholastic systems and spread world-wide.

Regardless of all this, the very truth concerning the Slavs is the very contrary. Historical records from the Roman period show, that only the Sarmatians are known in the area behind the Carpathians. North of them the Finnic groups were spread. These people were still nomads and hunters. In the territory of the Oder River and the Vistula Basins, the Roman records already quote the settlement of the Venethi (Vends). Surprisingly, at one-time the Lusatian Culture was spread in this area (1500 - 1100 BC), which was the cradle of the ancient Vends or Veneti (Wenden).

Tacitus (ca. 56 - 117 AD) in his description of north-eastern Europe, he makes mentioning of Germans, Venethi, Peucini or Bastarni, Sarmati and Fenni. He is describing the Sarmati as nomads, and the Fenni as gatherers and hunters. The Peucini could only have been the Balts, although he presents them as a mixed group, which is very probable an error on part of his informers.

Further, Tacitus comments: Venethi... nam quidquid inter Peucinos Fennosque silvarum ac montium erigitur latrociniis pererrant; hi tamen inter Germanos potius referuntur, quia et domos figunt et scuta gestant et peditum usu ac pernicitate gaudent... (Germania, 46). Translation: Vends... they are making raids through the woodland and mountain areas which arises between the countries of the Peucini and that of the Fenni, and they (Vends) are rather to compare with the Germans, for they got stable dwellings, they handle the swords and have a skilled and rapid infantry...
Therefore I suppose, it must have been during the early Roman era, when a part of the Venethi (Vends) migrated towards East. They kept their original name Slovieni (Sloveni, Slovenci, Slovinci), and settled in the area of the present-day Sankt Petersburg (Pskov, Novgorod). Nestor is still recording them at the beginning of the 12th century. I infer from these and other facts, that the Venedic agriculture together with their language very quickly spread among the autochthon groups of nomads, gatherers and hunters there. In this way the so-called Eastern Slavs were born. Their social structure became that of the Vends, and they were organised in village communities. Their ethnical feature, however, remained for the most part in its originality. For example, they continued to worship the (Finnic) birch-tree. The rivers conserved Finnic names like Moskva, Oka, Kama etc. In their mythology, the highest God was Perun, who is identical with Perkunas, God of the Balts, and so on. In short, in an independent science study the distinction between the groups of Vends and Slavs (Eastern Slavs) clearly comes to the surface now.

Vendic settlement in Lusatia  7/8 AD.
A reconstruction of the settlement and citadel of the 7th/8th century AD, the fundaments of which were unearthed in Tornow, Kreis Calau (Lusatia). The very ancient division of the field of the individual farms and families, which is here evident, was characteristic for the Vendic village (vas) and its social and economical system. At that time the basis of the German social structure was the Clan (Sippe), and that of the Southern Slavs the Zadruga (great family) which continued to exist until 20th century.

But the original Vendic territory also experienced immigrations, namely those of the Celts. On the European continent the Celts spoke a language very close to that of the Vends, although they were ethnical seen a diverse people. Their social organisation was the clan (Sippe, in German), and their tree of life was the oak. The Celtic groups, because of their very similar language, disintegrated with the Vendic people in no time. Their influence can be seen only in some particularities, for example: Bohemia got its name from the Celtic people of Boji (pronounce: boyi). In the area of Salzburg, Vienna, Bratislava, Prague, and also in southern Poland, archaeologists discovered many typical Celtic tombs. Another example is the oak tree, which can be found in Polish traditions. The non-palatalised sound "k" of the Celtic languages appears in Polish, whereas the Vendic tongue had this sound already palatalised in "c" (ts), for example: kwiet - cvet (blossom). And so on.

In a short article like this one, I cannot render many examples of the above exposed extensive problem. In comparing the differences between the Vends (Western Slavs) and the Slavs (Eastern Slavs), I only wish to present two typical figures from Vendic mythology: God Triglav (the three-headed) and God Svetovit (the world-showing). Those and other deities do not appear in the mythology of Eastern Slavs (meaning Russians) and of Southern Slavs (Illyrians, Thracians), even though scientists are presenting to us a unique Slav mythology. Among the latter, the word Triglav was only used to describe a mountain range. - Further on, nationalistic German research workers like Schneeweiss (1935), Wienecke (1940), Kirfel (1948) and others, refused to accept that the Vends and Slavs made contributions to any higher cult and ascribed them as demonology only.

With respect to the subject "Slavs are competing for their so-called national pride", lots of propaganda about national romanticism, scientific and ideological falsifications were published, and they are still in circulation. They are not exactly lies, but half-truth and half-lie disguised with academic titles given by their authors. Therefore it is not easy to filter the truth from lies. I wish to stress the point that a (common) mythology shared by all "Slavs" did not exist. This applies also to the fact, that the Slavs were never descendants of the (none existing) "Ancient Slavs" who at one-time should have lived and danced behind the Carpathians.





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