The Vends in Scandinavia
Author: Dr. Jozko Savli
The original article on Carantha
Owner of the page: Igor Pirnovar

 

Introduction by owner of the page.
  1. Meddling with the name Pomerania
The original article.   (Dr. Jozko Savli)
  1. F. Jeza the first alternative to Serbian hegemonic
    policies of pseudo pan-Slavic ideology.
  2. Swealand
    The arrival of Germanic tribes into Scandinavia.
  3. Trinity.



 

 

Introduction by the owner of the page.

Sometimes the historians are rather unpleasantly surprised by the linguistics. This is also what happened to the "Germanic" researchers, when they discovered in Gothic language there were many Slavic language elements. This is why, they are quick to distance themselves from the linguistic issues, when the results are not exactly what they would want, in a grandiose "academic" manner, all in favour of strict scientific evidence and truth, by saying things like: "other evidence to the language of the Cimbri is circumstantial..."! Not that in principle there is anything wrong with such a commendable discipline and observation of the highest of the academic standards, it is just that they found a loophole to employ others less constrained in their conduct. Not unlike the researchers of the Etruscans and particularly the Etruscans language the "Germanic" researchers, when it comes to ancient European history and languages, also in silence accept the dilettante explanations, when they hit a "impenetrable wall". In this way just like the the Etruscologists, friendly dilettante "Germanic" researchers solved many ancient linguistic problems. We have already met such a case, where the so called "competent" Western researchers invented Gothic word ["slawan < *slawoz"], which apparently in Gothic language means "mute", so they could claim that Germanic tribes too, if not first, called Slavs "the mute ones, those who cannot speak". To see these arguments you may click: The origin of the name Veneti. (opens in a new window).

These "Germanic" researchers continue making blunders, when trying to define the origins of Goths in Europe, which they either would like to relate to Celts, or settle them as aboriginal Scandinavian populations that spread from a few square miles of Jutland with a few exceptions almost over the whole of Europe. So on the Internet, mostly in the popular public encyclopedias (Wikipedia), we find references to the first European encounters of the earliest so called proto-Germanic / Gothic tribes or ethnic families through ancient historical notes of either antique Greek or Roman writers, of which the most reliable and the most cherished are the records of Julius Caesar or Augustus who mentions his first encounter with these North European dwellers in his famous [Res Gestae Divi Augusti ("The Deeds of the Divine Augustus"))] [rGdA-26], from the 1st century AD, which is then gradually expanded for a two to three centuries into the past, and finally all the way to the 8th century BC. Let us see some examples of this "public knowledge":

History from "public knowledge records" aka Wikipedias
  1. According to Greek and Roman sources, the Cimbri originated in Jutland, which was called "Chersonesus Cimbrica" (Χερσόνησος Κιμβρική) after them. According to the Res gestae (ch. 26) of Augustus [rGdA-26], the Cimbri were still found somewhere on the peninsula around the turn of the Common Era:
  2. My fleet sailed from the mouth of the Rhine eastward as far as the lands of the Cimbri to which, up to that time, no Roman had ever penetrated either by land or by sea, and the Cimbri and Charydes and Semnones and other peoples of the Germans of that same region through their envoys sought my friendship and that of the Roman people [rGdA-26].
  3. The Cimbri were a Germanic or Celtic tribe who together with the Teutones and the Ambrones threatened the Roman Republic in the late 2nd century BC. Other evidence to the language of the Cimbri is circumstantial: thus, we are told that the Romans enlisted Gaulish Celts to act as spies in the Cimbri camp prior to the final showdown with the Roman army in 101 BC. This is evidence in support of "the Celtic rather than the German theory".
  4. If the Cimbri resided in the north of Jutland, it may be conjectured that their language was Proto-Germanic. However, there are indications that the Cimbri did in fact speak a Celtic language.
    1. Thus, Pliny the Elder (c. 77 AD) states, Philemon [[[   page owner's comment: Philemon c.362-262 BC) was an Athenian poet and playwright of the New Comedy   ]]]   says that: "the Baltic is called Morimarusa (Pomerania) by the Cimbri" (Naturalis Historia, 4.95)".
    2. [[[   page owner's comment: Western linguists "professionals / dilettantes" elaborate:   ]]] The words for "sea" and "dead" are "muir" and "marbh" in Irish, and "mor" and "marw" in Welsh.
  5. The kings of the Cimbri and Teutones carry what look like Celtic names, viz. Boiorix and Teutobodus. On the other hand, the origin of a name need not say anything about the ethnicity or language of the individual carrying the name - (page authors's comment: however, if it occurs consistently as it does with continental Celts it is a rather significant hint of the ethnicity, indeed!)
We could see that in the above examples, there are not many true facts to be found, mostly they are guesses and hints. Not that information like this is useless, however, often there are more possible ways to interpret these "facts", the most important of which is the fact that in no uncertain terms can we be sure we are only talking about a proto-Germanic / Gothic ethnic groups, there indeed, could be other non - Germanic groups involved. Most of all, there exist obvious and rather convincing indicators, that all these ethnic groups may have been either speaking to the Venetic language similar language, or at least understood it rather well, which also supports Dr. Jozko Savli's findings in his article represented here.

At the same token we also witnessing here one of those "honourable moments" where the highest of the academic standards of the "Germanic" researchers, come to play, when they observed, that "The evidence to the language of the Cimbri may as well be circumstantial!" Indeed, this time they are mentioning the "rumours", that the Romans enlisted Gaulish Celts to act as spies in the Cimbri camp prior to the final showdown with the Roman army in 101 BC, which apparently supports "the Celtic rather than the German theory". But of course there is no mention any chance that Celts may have been speaking Venetic language. This last eventuality is now known for quite some time, at least for eight years, since a well known Canadian researcher Anthony Ambrozic of Slovenian descent published first of his three books in 1999, deciphering almost all West European Celtic inscriptions with the help of Slovenian etymological dictionary. In the later books he in the same way translated all the inscriptions believed to be of the Eastern Gauls in Anatolia. Following is the list of his books:

  1. Adieu to Brittany
  2. Journey Back to the Garumna
  3. Gordian Knot Unboubd
I have to mention the above statement from the list of "public knowledge records" aka Wikipedias, which is consistently found in these "public encyclopedias", but yet never do they tell us where the information comes from:
The Cimbri were a Germanic or Celtic tribe who together with the Teutones and the Ambrones threatened the Roman Republic in the late 2nd century BC.
My attention caught the name Ambroni, which obviously is related to the word amber, a fossilized resin, for which the coastal areas of Baltic became famous already in antiquity, which became a part of a well known prehistoric Venetic trade route known as the Amber road from the Baltic to North Adriatic, and extended all the way to Anatolia via the yet another prehistoric trade route which I like to call the Tin road. As we see, Veneti controlled the most important prehistoric European trade routes, which doesn't sit well with "Germanic" researchers, and are looking for all possible ways to make Germanic presence visible in areas well beyond their reach, both in space and time.

As we will see the word "amber" is rather important even more so because it is not Greek or Roman in origin but is of a rather later Germanic origin, though even that proves to be only half of the truth, since it is a derivative of indigenous Venetic vocabulary. Greeks called "amber" "ηλεκτρον" (elektron), in Latin it is called: "electrum, sucinum" ... (sujtinum="ki se sveti" i.e. "which shines"), in German it is called ""Bernstein"" (beere, [English:berry], = [Slovene: "beri, brati, nabirati, pobirati" = "to pick, to gather"]), in English "amber", and in French where it means orange "d'ambre". In Germanic languages it is important to note the semantics that was lost but is hidden that the words {beere, berry, bear, Bär, Bernstein, ...} which derives from Venetic vocabulary, namely: {"beri, brati, nabirati, pobirati"}, which means "to pick, to gather", namely, berries, cherries, honey are all picked. Needless to say in all Slavic languages the words for "to pick, to gather" are: {Slov:"beri, brati", Rus:"брать, собирать, набирать" (brat', sobirat, nabirat), Czech:"sbírat", Polish:"zbierac", Serb:"brati"}. Also a bear (German:Bär) is gathering, picking berries, cherries, honey.

Hence there's plenty of linguistic evidence, that Venetic words "ber, beri, brat" are the origin of most of the above mentioned Germanic words but most important of all the word "amber" and "Bernstein".

This short excursion into a linguistic archaeology has convinced me that the name Ambroni for some made up Scandinavian tribe is a pure academic concoction. The name was invented just because Baltic was the source of the well known Venetic trade route called "Amber Road". However, this is not all, we can show that even the name for Cimbri is of a very similar origin, and is perhaps a concoction of the ancient Greek play-write, that goes by the awesome biblical name Philemon, perhaps one more reason not to doubt the "competent linguists". We'll look at this name next.

 

Meddling with the name Pomerania: Cimbri seem to be important enough that things could not be left alone, and some reasonable explanation is in order. Therefore, in the above list of "public knowledge records" aka Wikipedias under item (iv) we find a few rather problematic linguistic problems, that cry for explanations. The fact that they attempted to tackle so obviously Venetic toponomy Pomerania either suggested there may be something there, or the researchers knew very little about the Slavic origin of this word, or even worse, as usually choose to ignore the Slavic prospective all together. I would be very surprised if the latter was not the case. The "Germanic" researchers are, indeed, attempting to claim the name is originally Germanic or Celtic. Let's se the item again:


  1. If the Cimbri resided in the north of Jutland, it may be conjectured that their language was Proto-Germanic. However, there are indications that the Cimbri did in fact speak a Celtic language.
    1. Thus, Pliny the Elder (c. 77 AD) states, Philemon [[[   page owner's comment: Philemon c.362-262 BC) was an Athenian poet and playwright of the New Comedy   ]]]   says that: "the Baltic is called Morimarusa (Pomerania) by the Cimbri" (Naturalis Historia, 4.95)".
    2. [[[   page owner's comment: Western linguists "professionals / dilettantes" elaborate:   ]]] The words for "sea" and "dead" are "muir" and "marbh" in Irish, and "mor" and "marw" in Welsh.

Before we continue let me point to another place, where we have also encounter the words "sea" (morje) and "dead" (mrtev), which obviously are old words and fit perfectly well into the vocabulary of the language of Veneti and can also be found in all Slavic vocabularies. The other place where these words are discussed is in relationship to the word "lamprey=morema" which you can check out by clicking on: word morena (opens in new window).
If anything, from the above we can conclude, that ancient Greeks already in the 4th century BC, i.e. in times of the antique Greek poet and play-write Philemona, knew that Baltic coasts of the North Sea were called "Morimarusa (Pomerania)", and that these lands were called so by some people called "Cimbri". Greeks most likely knew about Baltic due to the famous trade route aka "Amber road". The name "Cimbri" also sounds like "amber". Earlier we have seen seen the relationships between the words "amber", German:"Bernstein", and Venetic words "beri, brati, pobirati, nabirati" with the meaning "to pick, to gather", and the obvious similarity of the English word "berry", which brings us closer to the word "bear" or German:""bear, Bär"". The related semantics for "bears" is the gathering or the picking of "berries, cherries", and "honey". A similar semantics can be affiliated with "amber", and German:"Bernstein", namely, the peoples at the Baltic coast were gathering or picking a "fantastic stone" or "amber".

However even more interesting here is the similarity between the Venetic and Celtic languages, namely both have very similar words for the "sea" and "death" that even sound alike in either language. In all Slavic languages the "sea" is called "more, morje, ..." and "to day, the dead" is called "mre, meret, mrtev, umreti,...". Equally significant to me is the fact that, our "competent" Western linguists, scientists or dilettantes, as always keep this piece of information away from the world audiences and indeed, away from the "somewhat linguistically challenged westerners"!

 

Though I haven't directly dealt with the topic of Dr. Jozko Savli's article, and neither did he write exactly about the same things as I, nevertheless, I do believe it is beneficial to inject also the contrasting views hold about these issues by the West Europeans, which expose the the conflicting points of view, that through our (Slavic) angle seem rather twisted and distorted.

Owner of the web page.

 

 

The Vends in Scandinavia

The "triglav" (three head) stonehead found at Glejbjerg near Esbjerg, (boroughed from the Trinity webpage).

The \

Genetically, the closest People to Slovenians are Swedes

Another Example for the Collapse of the pan-Slav and of the pan-German Theory

by Dr. Jožko Šavli

 

 

F. Jeza the first alternative to Serbian hegemonic
policies of pseudo pan-Slavic ideology.

Franz Jeza, a Slovenian writer and journalist, who was employed by Radio Trieste (Italy) after WW2, published in 1967 a book entitled "Skandinavski izvor Slovencev" (The Slovenian origin in Scandinavia). To substantiate his theory, he based his arguments on numerous examples of ethnology and vocabulary, which are common to Swedes and Slovenians. The conclusion of his comparisons was that Slovenians, who are listed in the records also as Veneti, Vends or Vandals, arrived from Scandinavia at the beginning of the Middle Ages (5/6th century AD).

Even though the records truly verify that Slovenians are the bearers of those names, the assertion, however, to be of Scandinavian origin was rather a challenge that had to face the official explanation of history topics in Slovenia (Yugoslavia). In sense of the pan-Slavic ideology, the autochthonous country of all Slavs was the area behind the Carpathian Mountains (in Russia). From there, one part of them, the so-called Southern Slavs, supposedly migrated to the Balkans in 5th century AD. In 568 AD, when the Lombards left Pannonia for Italy, and consequently were not blockading the roads to the Alps anymore, part of the Southern Slavs penetrated into the Alps. Some centuries later they apparently developed to Slovenians.

Of course, the appurtenance of Slovenians to the group of Southern Slavs (Yugoslavs) has been an ideological question. Already after WW1, the Yugoslav State even was founded as a community of nations, that supposedly derived from Southern Slavs. Based on this ideology the Yugoslav (Great Serbia) hegemonies tried to instaurate a common Yugoslav nation, and tried to introduce a common (Serbian) language that some time back in the past should have existed.

Under such circumstances, Franz Jeza was the very first person who tried to trace the origin of Slovenians beyond the frame of the Southern Slavs. And that was more then courageous in those times. Thus, his book found disapproval and was opposed by many Slovenians in Trieste, because they were in general pan-Slavic and Yugoslav oriented. Clipping the Slovenians out of the frame of the Slavs and Southern Slavs meant isolation from the "brothers" and surrender to their historical enemies, the Italians and the Germans. Apart from this, Franz Jeza was also a supporter of the independent Slovenia movement, which in general opinions had no chance to come into existence, because of Italian and German expansionistic objectives. Therefore, the historical truth concerning Slovenians was of no importance, because the appurtenance to the Slavs and to the Southern Slavs signified survival, . And such a point of view was persistently spread throughout the web of the confidants of the Yugoslav Secret Service in Trieste and around the world.

Jeza's theory concerning a Scandinavian origin of Slovenians was impossible to substantiate, but the discovered details were creating a question, which would call for an explanation sooner or later. In 1982, I wrote about the linden tree that was widely spread in village life and the connection of names like Venet, Vends, Windische, in addition to that I also discovered traces of the early Vends. I then remembered the papers that were published by Franz Jeza. From these studies it was evolving that one of the migration groups, the bearers of the Urnfield cultur, the Vends, also might have reached Scandinavia after 1200 BC.

In my study "Veneti, naši davni predniki" (Vends, Our Remote Ancestors) which was published in Glas Korotana No. 10 (Vienna, 1985), I could not find sufficient proof in any archaeological literature on this topic. To this day we still have insufficient data and I don't know if any further researches were done in this field. Nonetheless, there are enough indirect examples that the Vends also migrated to Scandinavia. A rich culture, or better said, agriculture has followed and flourished there, but the climate became colder (Subatlanticum ca. 700 BC - ca. 800 AD). The population gradually dwindled, and later the new arrival of Germanic people colonized a large part of the territory.

 

Swealand

Where is the evidence to substantiate the theory of the settlement of Vends in Scandinavia?

Besides the above mentioned proofs established by Franz Jeza, here are some Vendic names, e.g., Vendsyssel, at the extreme end of the peninsula Jutland, and the name Swealand in the midst of Sweden, deriving from the name Sved, shortened from Slovendt, which is evident in the adjective "svensk" (shortened from "slovensk-i" - svedsk-i), i.e., Swedish. The names of lake Vänern as well as lake Vättern show that they were shortened to Vend, Vendi. This was ensued in Latin as Veneti, and in Greek as Heneti or Eneti.

 

The arrival of Germanic tribes into Scandinavia.

It may have been a few hundred years before Christ, when several migrations of Germanic tribes came to Scandinavia, who were commonly known as Goths. After them the Southern area of the country was named Götaland. Thereafter, the German language prevailed among Slovends (Sveds) and was gradually adopted by the whole community.

There is no exact data when this occurrence took place; it must have been in the first part of the Middle Ages. The Vandals, who arrived here during that period from Scandinavia, still spoke a Vendic language (today called Slavonic). The writer Mauro Orbini adduces in his book (1601) some Vandalic words, for exempla: stal (chair), baba (grandmother), ptach (bird), kobyla (mare), krug (circle), golubo (pigeon), klicz (key), zumby (teeth), mlady (young). All these words are identical with the Slovenian ones.

I took these words from a letter, in which Ing. Joseph Skulj (February 22, 2002) from Toronto gives a response to Prof. Tom Priestly (University of Alberta). The latter, in his paper entitled "Vandals, Veneti, Windischer: The Pitfalls of Amateur Historical Linguistics" (Denver, Colorado, November 11, 2000) rejected all theories concerning the Vandals (and Vends in general), but only from the point of view of the linguistic method of research, as he later explained.

The discoveries, that rise to the surface from Ing. Škulj,s letter are a big surprise for all of us and are explained in the following:

The geneticists are trying to find relationships between genes and languages. Rosser et al., in their genetic study of the European population have come up with some startling information for scholars of the question Vandals, Vends/Wends and Slavs... In their population comparisons through PC analysis, where PC analysis is a method that allows the graphic display, in a few dimensions, of the maximum amount of variance within a multivariate data set, with minimum loss of information, they show graphically genetic relationships between populations. Figure 5 shows the results of this PC analysis of the Y-chromosome HG data, in which populations are labelled according to linguistic affiliation.

In the first comparison, Figure 5A shows that genetically the closest people to Slovenians are Swedes, followed by Czechs, Götalanders and Norwegians and then Yugoslavs, Belarusians and Slovaks. In the second graph, Figure 5B, compares other genetic groups. In this comparison, the closest people to Slovenians are Slovaks and Ukrainians, followed by Götlanders, Poles, Czechs, Belarusians, Swedes and Norwegians (Rossser et al. 2000).

In sense of this, we come to the conclusion that the Vandals originated from the Swedish region called Uppland with the centre in Uppsala. There, the site Vendel, also a well known archaeological finding place, could still remember them. At one time Uppsala was the Swedish chief town. Today, the Vandals are considered to be of Germanic origin. However, the name speaks for itself that they are of Vendic origin. The part that settled in the Mediterranean area at the decline of the Roman era, founded their kingdom in Southern Spain, in Andalusia (Vandalusia), and then in North Africa. They might still have spoken a mixed (Vendic/German) language.

Swedish King Installation on a stone like the dukes of Carantania (Slovenia)
Swedish King Installation on a stone like the dukes of Carantania (Slovenia)
The Swedish king was installed on a stone like the dukes of Carantania (Slovenia). The stone, because of its immutability, was God's symbol meaning eternity, and the ruler was responsible for his authority before God. - This illustration origins from the book about the Nordic people published by Claus Magnus, in 1560. The installation stone was called "Mora sten" and was placed in a meadow near Uppsala.

In my opinion, the main part of Vandal tribes remained in Scandinavia. They were the ancestors of the present-day Swedes. They adopted gradually a Germanic tongue, probably inherited from the Goths. But they conserved the ancient Vendic social organization. They also elected their king, and until today he bears the title "The King of the Vends and Goths". Quite naturally, these "Vends" are Swedes. But I was very surprised to discover that the Swedish king himself was installed on a Stone, like the Dukes of Carantania (Slovenia). After the election, the installation on the Stone took place. Thus, is there more than a genetic closeness between the Swedes and the Slovenians?!

Portable (reusable) "kozolec"
Portable (reusable) kozolec.
The movable "kozolec" (pronounce: cosolets) is the most simple form of this kind of installation used to shelter grain sheaves and hey. At the end of the season is it pulled down anew.

"Kozolec" with stone pillars
Kozolec with stone pillars.
The "kozolec" with columns of wood (here with pillars) or built of stone is a durable and most common form of installation, which is typical in Slovenia and in the Eastern Alps.

Carinthian scholars have discovered many similarities between Scandinavia and the Eastern Alps, particularly the well-known Georg Graber (cf. Volksleben in Kärnten, 1941). In this respect, he came up with numerous similarities in the manifestation of people's character - as he wrote - about labour objects, customs, poetry, and about cultivated life style. This collection of similarities was meant to demonstrate a Nordic character, which should lead to the significant legacy of the "ancient Germans". Even the "kozolec" (pronounce cosolets), an installation to shelter grain and hey, is to be found in Scandinavia, exactly in the same way as we find it in the Eastern Alps.

"Kozolec" with wooden pillars
Kozolec  with wooden pillars.
The "kozolec" with columns of wood (here with pillars) or built of stone is a durable and most common form of installation, which is typical in Slovenia and in the Eastern Alps.

Barn using kozolec building structure
Skedenj (barn) kombiniran s kozolcem.
In Slovenia, the "stog" is another typical rural building, the laterals of which are composed by "kozolec". It must be of pre-historic origin, because in Lithuanian (Balto-Slav period) the word stog simply means a roof. This building serves also to keep carriages and other tools.

The ethnologists confirm, that at one-time there must have existed a unique land cultivated by man (Kulturlandschaft), which extended from Scandinavia to the Alps. This statement corresponds with the archaeological facts. After the migrations of the Vends (after 1200 BC), the Hallstatt civilization flourished in this area (ca. 900 - 400 BC). Thereafter the Celts invaded the area north and south of the Alps. They brought another social organization and culture, the so-called La Tène civilization (ca. 400 - 15 BC). The Celts did not occupy the Alps and Scandinavia, where the ancient Vendic people's culture survived until the 20th century AD.

Thus, the ethnical and genetic similarities between Scandinavia and the Alps, i.e., between the Swedes and the Slovenians cannot be referred to the ancient Germans, but to the Vends, who were the basis of forming both nations.

 

Trinity

The Trinity study is an article, which was put well together with one exception. "The people were not Celts in Skandinavia" but Wends, who spoke a similar language as the Celts.

 

 

 

 


 

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