Etruscan inscriptions: group "man, swear, clean..."
Author: Igor Pirnovar

Part I.     ( E x p l a n a t i o n s )

Introduction

Some hints about the word "clan"
Some hints about other words from "cl..." group
The phantom Etruscan grammar Etruscologists invented
rests on the words. "clan" and "larOalisa"
Irish Celtic unlikely related to Etruscan language.
Mere statistics turns against linguistic theory of the Etruscologists.

What to expect
The question of English language popping up.
The words { cla..., cle..., cli... } explained     ( table: man / kill / swear )
The group { mun... }               ( table: thunder and lightning )

Etruscollogists and the word "clan" (son).

Etruscans and Venetic spirituality.
Etruscollogists fel into their own trap.
Etruscologists found the name Claudius... ( Claudius and Clytemnestra )
Clytemnestra and "Roman History" point to Claudius.
Accepting that "clan" means slain (to slay).
Etruscan words in spiritual context.
Piti, peti, pes... "drink, sing, dog, ..."
How did Etruscollogists arrived at their "demonstrative pronoun" theory.
Breastfeeding, cracking souls and drinking them up.
Drinking (introducing inscriptions).

 


 

Introduction
(Etruscan inscriptions: group "man, swear, clean...")

The main title of this group (see the bracketed subtitle above) designates this group of words a bit short, however, the Etruscologists see it even "shorter". This is due to the fact that they associated with its single meaning (son) different stems or roots of different words. Since they have picked out of a group of 115 words only three or four (3 or 4) words, should not represent a problem, however the fact that they neglected to mention, that there exist some additional 110 odd Etruscan words to the reader, either points to an unacceptable level of carelessness, or to a deliberate attempt to cover up something public is better not to be aware of.

When in this way they explain the words "clan", "clenar", and "cliniiaras" to be one and the same word, due to a voice transformation caused by grammatic inflection, a reader unaware of the possibility that these features most likely are a word specific, and may not at all be present with other words, will no longer turn attention to the fact that these letter combinations (cla-, cle-, cli-, clO-, clu-) in other cases also can signify a different stem or root and hence a new meaning and word all together.

On the other hand it is true that all kinds of rather similar voice transformations do, indeed, exist in Etruscan, Greek as well as in Slovene (Venetic) languages. However, I do feel strongly, that Etruscologists have too radically, or perhaps superficially, reduced this group of words to a launching platform for their elaborate skim to create an illusion of a their understanding of the Etruscan language and even to show off impressive pieces of its Grammar, which happen to support their idea that almost every second Etruscan word is nothing but a meaningless name.

Etruscologists have written pages of theoretical discussions about merely three words out of a 115 different Etruscan words in order to promote the idea that the two main meanings hidden in all these words are "sun of ..." or "one of ...". The odds that all the 110 different words translate into one of these two "concoctions" are rather slim, and we can all be confident that the 256 Etruscan inscriptions with these words in them will thoroughly shake up, and if nothing else, monumentally augment the Etruscologists' proposition.

In order to do so, we have to assume there are more words and meanings in this group of words, which begin with the string cl.... The same should be true for all the subgroups, the largest of which is the set of words starting with the string cla.... Hence, we should expect multitude of different words and meanings here too.

 

Some hints about the word "clan"

By far the most common word in this category is the word clan. There are more than 60 other examples or cases of this word, which all are most likely different grammatic forms of the same basic or root meaning. Depending on whose school of thought that deals with Etruscan language you are involved with, the interpretation and the translation of this word is different. Studying different inscriptions, one can soon realize, that for he most common of these words, namely clan, there may exist more than one meaning or a rather complex compounded meanings for this word. The inscriptions were rather revealing, since some were describing the images they adorned. There are separate paragraphs dedicated just to this rather important word. If you can't wait to learn about the meaning of this word you may wish to peak ahead by clicking the following link ( Etruscollogists and the word "clan" ).

By now you are most likely aware, that we are exploring two major schools of thought which deal with the Etruscan language. One is that supported by the traditional historians and linguists, to which researchers we refer to Etruscologists, and the other is a new and less known and a broader school of thought to whose researchers also dealing with the Etruscan language we refer to as Venetologists. Of course we are talking about the Venetologists who believe the Etruscans, Veneti and Slavs are related.

There is hope that one day the two sides will realize they both had something in common. Namely, it is interesting to note that some words which scholars from either school of Etruscan studies select intersect in the categories of their semantic values. For instance "a son" and "a man, a member"   for the word "clan" are in fact interchangeable in all the inscriptions, so are the meanings "to call, shout" and "to curse; to put a spell on someone; to pray for mercy"   for  "clel". In first example the Etruscologists selected the meaning for the word from a subset of Venetologist's selection, and in the other, from a superset.

Incidentally, I the above two interpretations of the two words (clan, clen), show symptoms of the true weakness in their theory about the entire grammar they developed around the word "clan" (son), and particularly the [ "a" => "e/i" ] voice transformation scheme by which "clan" becomes "clenar" and "cliniiaras".

A simplistic answer to the question about the root meaning of the word clan would be that Etruscologists believe its meaning is "a son", and the Venetologists claim it means "a man, a member". For those who understand Slavic languages or for the competent linguists, let me reiterate the fact, that the Venetologists arrived at their suggested meanings after a thorough study, and that from a linguistic point of view, even if the Etruscologists did try to provide their facts that led to their choice of the translation, they could not come up with anything remotely resembling the solid arguments the Venetologists have at their disposal. We will see sufficient proof of this later, or you may have already seen it by clicking on the link above (Etruscollogists and the word "clan").

However, I realized in a mythological sense "clan" also means "killed, slaughtered,...". Perhaps if the current translation, namely, "a son, a man" or "a member" wasn't backed up with such a solid proof as was the famous Etruscan mirror of Hercules being breastfeed by the Gods, it would be alarming, that the Venetologists didn't even mention the possibility of relevance of this alternative meaning, which is also universal among all the Slavic languages, which I also explain in greater detail later in the article. It actually took me quite a few years, and a ground breaking realization, that both parts of the name Appius Claudius also describe a murderous Roman military man, before I allowed myself, to consider this alternative meaning for our word "clan".

While the earlier translations of the word "clan", namely, "a son", "a man" and "a member of human race" are almost always interchangeable, how does one reconcile this with a totally different meaning "killed, slaughtered"? The fact is, one does not! The meaning can only be one or the other, nevertheless, seen in the mythological context the two meanings are much closer than one may think. It specifically means killed human being, not a god or a sacrificial lamb, in fact the "murderer" is a God or a Goddess who cracked open the dying soul, and drank up its contents (life) (again we are a bit ahead of ourselves here, and will explore the mythological aspects of this issue later on). Hence the killing is not done by a man but by a God, which is not really the killing per se, which also implies, that we are talking about a mythological jargon. There are many inscriptions describing just this aspect of Etruscan mythological beliefs.

 

Some hints about other words from "cl..." group

Beside the the root or core meanings of any word there are large number of derivative meanings and forms, that can be obtained by adding prefixes or suffices to the root. We are not very much concerned here about those. One reason is that due to the linguistic immaturity of the early antique languages, numerous newcomers as well as indigenous settlers influenced then newly evolving language. Certain forms could mean different things to different speakers and social strata. Clearly a Venetic or Slavic word didn't expand or improve it's meaning for a native speaker by an addition of Italic "patronymic" form.

In Italy as much as anywhere through out the other Mediterranean lands, reach pirates among whom expelled Asian, Anatolian and North African kings and nobleman, well versed in military skills, and the customs of the "higher classes", influenced ruling clans introducing some kind of a koine language, among the aborigines. Local craftsmen and scribes must have been compelled to imitate the language of their rich customers.

I think this konie language we just mentioned, can be seen as a newly evolving common language of bronze age ruling classes, and I believe is where some of the ancestral elements of all Greek, Etruscan and Latin are to be attributed.

Some suffices are very hard to declare as standard features of the language. For instance in the word "claniusa" we can see Latin ending "-us" combined with Venetic "-a" which in turn can be either a Genitive form of a noun or perhaps a verb form as found in Slovene and other Slavic languages. There exists also a possibility to slice the ending in a different way, reflecting some late Etruscan form more akin to non-European languages.

Nevertheless, it is very easy to see, that most of the 115 different words forms starting with one of the { cla-, cle-, cli-, clO-, clu- } strings contain for a Slavic reader familiar prefix and suffix forms. Hovever, all these possibilities deserve to be examined by competent linguists, and extend well beyond our intent to collect and organize the pertinent inscriptions, and most likely also vastly exceed our capabilities to identify exact linguistic categories these words belong to. On the other hand, I do believe, that we've gathered sufficient evidence, to counter very arrogant and superficial claims of the Etruscologists, that they have produced scientific and linguistic proofs supporting their claims that Etruscan scripts reveal not much more than lists and genealogies of the deceased and the owners of tombs and of the votive gifts to the gods. There is no better way to shed some light on their claims, than to closely examine how they built their theories. Incidentally, they chose the words from this category and particularly the word "clan" to construct the core of their Etruscan grammatic theory.

 

The phantom Etruscan grammar Etruscologists invented
rests on the words "clan" and "larOalisa"

Etruscologists and Hittitologists have one thing in common, namely, they both use grammar as their main deciphering tool. While, in the case of tens of thousands of Hittite clay tablets, this truly may have been the best research method, it on the other hand, mainly due to the incomparably less rich Etruscan sepulchral and spiritual collection of a few thousand, mostly single line inscriptions, proved to be an extremely poor choice of the research strategy by the Etruscologists.

What I found interesting is that they both also love to talk about "demonstrative pronouns". In English this linguistic parlance to non-Slavic readers sounds like rocket science and, the Etruscologists use it as a fortress walls behind which they become untouchable and their theories go totally unchallenged. The fact that the Etruscologists are not linguistically up to the challenge should not come as a shock, however, the fact that no competent Slavic linguist even attempted to verify their theories is rather disturbing. The linguistically challenged, however, take this as a proof that the Etruscan language is related neither to the Venetic nor any of the Slavic languages. Following is the famous definition the Etruscologists push around as their hallmark, and a proof of their unsurpassed linguistic competency:

A special ending "-sa" or "-isa", is a "demonstrative pronoun", used with "genitive" of personal names, meaning "the one of" indicating "patronymic" ...
(1) As you can see, the Etruscologists base their theory about simple grammar issues buried under unnecessarily layered multitude of grammar patterns. A "demonstrative pronoun" is just a noun operated upon by grammatic inflection, (our first layer).
(2) The philosophy of patronymics and matronymics is nothing else but a fancy way of saying a masculine and feminine, with an emphasis on a genealogical point of view (second layer). This is hardly necessary in the tongues of the natives, but becomes an issue when foreign words and names are accepted, whose gender is no longer obvious. (Interestingly enough in all western languages, as well as Hittite, Greek and Latin the gender of a name is not always obvious.)
(3) Added on top of the previous two layers we see, for a western language speaker poorly, if at all, understood declination, whereby a "demonstrative pronoun" is treated as a declined noun (our third layer). I can not resist the temptation to add, that only someone who doesn't comprehend the necessity or reason for declination will use this feature to identify the gender of a predecessor on a family tree. And for both the ancient Greeks and Romans the concept of declination, forced on them by the native speakers was, indeed, a foreign concept.
But in order to explain their sophisticated naming schemes the Etruscologists resorted to yet another totally different group of words, which by the way are simply meaningless names, however according to them, they do hide the missing Etruscan grammar. Indeed we are talking about the word "larOalisa", which in accordance to the Etruscologists in its root form "larO" represents a meaningless name of a deceased Etruscan. What relates these two groups of words is their use and meaning which are, as explained, almost always interchangeable. We have, in passing, already encountered this relationship in the following examples:
Etruscan English Slovene
larOal .clan [ -al (Genitive) ] son of Larth sin Lartha
.larOalisa [ -al (Gen.) + -isa (Demonstr.Pron.) ] of Larth Larthov
aule .velimna .larOal .clan Aule Velimna son of Larth Aule Velimna Larthov sin
aule .velimna .larOalisa Aule Velimna of Larth Larthov Aule Velimna
(4) This is why in all their versions of Etruscan grammar we always find words "clan" and "larOalisa" explained side by side, which by the way is the fourth layer, of complexity with many additional sub-layers of its own! Though there are 820 Etruscan inscriptions including a word starting with the string "larO..." in not much less than 8000 inscriptions, there are only 18 that contain the form "larOalisa" we are discussing here. The following is the list of all these inscriptions:

laris .tarXnas .larOalisa hepnei .larOalisa
arnO .secu .larOalisa larO .vete .larOalisa .cainalisa
laris .vete .larOalisa arnO .aneini .larOalisa
lart .aneini .larOalisa .raufe arnO .lecsutini .larOalisa
arnO .hele .larOalisa larO .parna .larOalisa
vel .cafate .larOalisa lO .seiate .larOalisa .hanusa .ramznal
larO .ezna .larOalisa larza .larste .larOalisa
vel .herina .larOalisa vel .tlesna .larOalisa
Oania .veltsnei .larOalisa .armni .luesnas ..vetnal .lart .velara .larOalisa .lart .velara .aulesa .vel .pumpu .pruciu .aule .ce .latina .setmnal..

Skimming through the entries in the above table and taking into account the explanations furnished by the Etruscologists, one immediately gets an impression that, most of the Etruscan words are indeed names. But wait there are only 18 inscriptions that contain this form of the word, and 820 that contain others of the remaining 45 words which start with the string "larO...". The following is the list of all these "larO..." words:

All the 45 Etruscan words starting with "larO..."
larOlarOalarOaialarOallarOalc
larOalisalarOaliSalarOaliSlalarOalSlarOeal
larOilarOialarOiallarOialclarOiale
larOialisalarOialiSalarOialiSlalarOialisvlelarOias
larOiaSlarOicularOiialarOisalarOisal
larOisaslarOisularOitelarOizalarOl
larOlisalarOnlarOrularOruSlarOu
larOuialarOurlarOurnilarOurniSlarOurSua
larOurSuaiilarOuruslarOuruSlarOuslarOuzale

It is rather obvious that not much more than simple statistics speaks against the opinion of the Etruscologists that the words in the above table are different grammatic forms of the root "larO" which in their opinion is nothing but a meaningless name. Namely seldom, one finds a reason to twist a name into a verb form, which, to someone fluent in Slovene language, are not at all hard to spot in the above table. I am afraid, that we can safely conclude that the same holds true just as well for the "larOalisa", and that it too most likely is not just the gramatically twisted name (Larth, "to Larth", "under Larth", or "to that from under Larth",...). On the other hand one must admit, that searching for a meaning in these words should make at least as much sense, as guessing which form may contain a reasonable grammatic pattern.

Therefore before we look at the grammar issues associated with these words previously discussed in this article, it should be beneficial to look at the three most relevant words here: the root word "larO", and the two pertinent derived words from the above root, namely, "larOal" and "larOalisa" as documented in our evolving new Etruscan dictionary:

larO
Etruscan Slovene English Etruscologists
larO duša; [R=D] lad=hlad, mir, Lado=(hlad/mir); vlado, lord; gospod, gospa

- glej: (cp0-02: sinunia .larO .cicuS .papanias) = "Sina gospa na dojkah harani"; oproščeno, blagoslovjeno, rešeno, varno;

-- glejTudi:lare,larvae - lare="zašcitnik/varuh" || obratno:Lat:larvae="hudobni duh, ki straši"; - Lat:lar=(tutelary household god)="varuh, zaščitnik";

-- glejTudi: lari, larisa

soul; cool, coolness, peace; master, lady; name: "Vlad - (meaning the leader)" - see also: (cp0-02: sinunia .larO .cicuS .papanias) = "Madam breastfeeds her son" a male name

larOal
Etruscan Slovene English Etruscologists
larOal sopihal, hlastal, dušil; - svet duhov; [R=D] laDal, položil, dal; izdihnil, hlasta za zrakom; lare="zašcitnik/varuh družinske posesti"

- Lat:lar=(tutelary household god)="varuh, zaščitnik";

- glej:(larO.aXni.larOal)="Dušo ognu dal", (larOal.sapices)="dušis sopihaš";

-- glejTudi:larOalisa,larOial

grasping for air - direct translation in Slovene: soul="breath of air"; ghostly, world of ghosts; to put down, to lay; a male name "-al"=(Genitive)

larOalisa
Etruscan Slovene English Etruscologists
larOalisa nosilec duše (še živeči) - larO.al.isa:LarO=duša, al=še/od, isa=hodi/šla; izgleda kot skloni: { larO, larOal, larOalis, larOalisa }

- [Suffix rule: -alisa] označuje osebek); SAMOSTALNIK:larO; GLAGOL:larOal; -- glejTudi:larisaliSa, larOalisa

alive man with a soul; walking / departing soul "-alisa"=[demonstrative pronoun (kazalni zaimek)] - eL-p87

The examples Etrlgs give in [eL-p87] support their theory that most of the Etruscan words are names, see how rules make up for missing words, namely clan no longer needed (one is implied instead):

(aule.velimna.larOal.clan)="Aule Velimna son of Larth", (aule.velimna.larOalisa)="Aule Velimna the one of Larth"

Finally, we need to remind ourselves, that the Etruscologists prevented themselves to search for meanings by adopting the belief that most of the Etruscan words are names. They consciously excluded from their toolbox the comparative linguistics end etymology because there undeniably existed nothing but traces of Slavic linguistic residue, which according to traditional historical beliefs was outright prohibitive. Therefore they only could obtain any kind of meaning from visual art and grammatic patterns. The grammar for them became a vehicle and a bridge to the meanings as well as a glue to combine lists of names into reasonable sepulchral phrases and statements on the numerous votive offerings and gifts to the Gods or other inhabitants of the underworld and the beyond. This explains their focus on family names and different relationships between the people behind those names. This strategy is clearly visible in the grammar which they built around our two words we discuss here, namely, "clan" and "larOalisa".

Irish Celtic unlikely related to Etruscan language. It is worth mentioning here that in their quest to accommodate their naming schema, Etruscans apparently conveyed to them, the Etruscologists sought parallels in English and Scottish (Celtic) "Mc" and "Mac". Continental Celtic spoke a very different Venetic language than Insular Celts, who already in the past accepted the language of the indigenous insular populations, hence a linguistic relationship between the Etruscans and Insular Celts seems highly unlikely.
Moreover, due to Roman use of Etruščan skilled labor (slaves) throughout Roman empire as well as in England I would expect that English language contains comparatively a much more significant Etruscan imprint, than the Insular Celtic dialects, which should be rather free of Etruscan influences. I am so confident about this that I suggest incorporating this fact as one of the check items on the validation list for the evolving theories about the Etruscan language.

In the beginning of this paragraph I mentioned how the linguists who interpret ancient languages love to talk about the "demonstrative pronouns". I then mentioned the hallmark definition the Etruscologists are known by. We have seen the words which they occasionally hinted could be sliced up into tokens, for the grammar they needed to support their claims that many Etruscan words were meaningless names. Let's try to systematically organize this information and see if it is possible to break down these words into tokens to reflect their theory.

Grammar Etruscologists discovered in "larOalisa"
patronymics Masculine gender of a parent recognizable in a name
matronymics Feminine gender of a parent recognizable in a name
"-al, -s, -us" patronymics (M) ?
"-al, -s, -us" matronymics (F) ?
"-isa" Demonstrative pronoun
"-is" Demonstrative pronoun
"-al" Genitive
larO- ... "stem / root word" Singular (S)
"-ar" Plural (P)
"-alisa" -al (Gen.) + Demonstrative pronoun
"-aralisa" -ar(P) + -al (Gen.) + Demonstrative pronoun

Regardless of the fact, that very few examples from the book [eL-p87], on which the Etruscologists built their most prominent features of their Etruscan grammar exist among the "7000+" Etruscan inscriptions, some of their constructs seem very artificial. Nevertheless, we see that using the hints from their book it is possible to brake our word into tokens. The trouble is many tokens are rather suspicious. For instance from the tokens alone we can not indicate a gender, yet they give us impression they can reliably tell a difference between patronyms and matronyms. Also their identification of the number (singular / plural) is stated, yet there are only a handful of examples available for the word clenar, but not a single one for any other word, never mind the word larO, that appears in over 800 inscriptions and which they used to build their hallmark (demonstrative pronoun) grammar case, for which they also suggest, could be used in plural. One could argue, that larO is a name, hence an unlikely candidate for a plural use in the above scheme, however, the same could be argued for velOur... which appears in this apparent (-ar, -er, -ur) plural form 95 times, and is in accordance to the Etruscologists also a name.

While some of their explanations in isolation look plausible, they do not withhold a closer scrutiny particularly when checked against numerous similar words that most likely derive from the same root or stem. Also noticeable is a lack of examples, implying there is insufficient ground for the existence of the suggested grammatic patterns. This point is aggravated even further by the fact, that the Etruscologists consistently only hint about the alleged constituent building blocks of their grammatic elements, neglecting to produce a brake down. This behavior suggests there is no basis to talk about such building blocks in the first place, and indeed, there rarely exist a grammatic operator in any language turning a noun into a pronoun, though some obvious examples can be found like suffix "-self" in English.

It is not the best way to study and explain Etruscan language by looking for meaning with the help of only grammar, while ignoring possible semantics suggested by comparative linguistics and etymology as was apparently done by the Etruscologists, who categorically refused to employ these techniques solely for the fear of confirming the possibility that Slavs were around before the times the traditional historians and linguists would like to have us believe. This is a very dubious and biased approach particularly because there is no proof for the late arrival of Slavs into Europe! While there are many rather reliable hints from many ancient authors from Homer times all the way to Paulus Diakon that the opposite is indeed true. To defend their position they spread around their utterly unacceptable opinion and belief that no further progress should be possible with regards to our understanding of the ancient language.

Luckily, there are quite a few scientists and researchers who violently disagree with the above position. Of course they are those famous Slavic Venetologists, who believe early European cultures were closely related to the Veneti or Venets. So let's look at their more promising approach which is not exclusive as that of the Etruscologists, and who seek meanings not only in all other West European but including the Slavic languages, toponyms as well as in Greek and Latin words and known names such as Clytemnestra, Caesar, Claudius and alike.

At first some of the propositions here may look odd at best, but one has to keep an open mind about the hints here, and keep reading. Namely claims made here are widely supported by numerous Etruscan inscriptions and there are many examples to prove this point. When studying the suggestions here, one should not concentrate so much on detail, but rather the commonalities and overall consistency throughout all the inscriptions, if they exist.

Linguistic hints obtained by the help of the "Slovene language"
( larOalisa = larO .al .isa )
larO (lO) soul; cool, coolness, peace; master, lady; name:"Vlad - (meaning the leader)" duša; [R=D] lad=hlad, mir, Lado=(hlad/mir); vlado, lord; gospod, gospa; oproščeno, blagoslovjeno, rešeno, varno;
See also
sinunia .lO .cicuS .papanias [ lO=larO ]
Eng:"Madam breastfeeds her son"
Slo:"Sina gospa na dojkah harani";

Latin: lar ... "tutelary household god"; (varuh, zaščitnik);
Latin: lare ... "friendly ghost / spirit"; (dobri duh, zašcitnik/varuh)
Latin: larve ... "malice, evil ghost / spirit"; (hudobni / zli duh, ki straši);;
al al = still further / away al = še / od
isa went, gone šel
larO.al.isa larO=soul, spirit, al=further, isa=went =>
        departing man with a soul; walking / departing soul
nosilec duše (še živeči) - larO.al.isa:LarO=duša, al=še/od, isa=hodi/šla;
Suffix rules - -alisa:
  • In Slavic languages suffix -alisa marks a something similar to a diminutive name in English. Appending it to an object (a noun) it anthropomorphizes it.
  • larO ..... noun,
  • larOal ... verb (past tense).
  • Pripona -alisa, -iša označuje ali spremeni predmet v osebek;
  • larO ..... samostalnik,
  • larOal ... glagol (pretekli čas);
-- glejTudi (see also): larisaliSa, larOalisa

Here we have skewed away from our original category of words that begin with either of { cla-, cle-, cli-, clO-, or clu- } string, into a really unrelated category { larO- } on behalf of the Etruscologists, who relate the two in order to explain their version of Etruscan grammar, which supports their claim that the Etruscan language as it survived on those "7000+" Etruscan inscriptions is a largely a collection of the Etruscan names glued together with a rather interesting set of grammatic rules.

 

Conclusion

Many skeptics will argue we can not be sure at all that the above mentioned suggestions are correct. Though, there are no simple and straight forward answers, a reasonable number of test cases, the consistency and continuity eventually should convince one either way. Should you have any doubts about either theory, until more inscriptions are reevaluated, there is no real substitute for checking things out yourself, and I believe, no amount of second hand explanations can do. Until then linguists and speakers of a Slavic language will have an upper hand in such evaluations.

 

Mere statistics turns against linguistic theory of the Etruscologists.

One thing that we've learned, and that applies not only to the two groups we are discussing in this article but to all major, large groups of Etruscan words is, that they appear to utilize a very large set of grammatic operators in either a suffix or prefix forms. This is a very good indicator that these words may after all not be just meaningless names of the deceased Etruscans but full blown words which can be operated upon by all available grammar operators and other known grammatic paraphernalia, in particular if among the grammatic operators we find those that apply to verbs. This alone is a very strong argument against the basic understanding and belief about the Etruscan language being merely a collection of meaningless names, that the traditional historians, linguists and indeed, the Etruscologists hold.

It is now time to return our attention to our intended topics, namely, to the category of words { cla-, cle-, cli-... }. Let's first have a quick look at all the words found in this category:

There are 115 different words in this category
25 Etruscan words are starting with cle...
claclaesclaiteSclalumclanclana
clananclananasclaniclaniesclaniuclaniunia
claniusaclaniuSclanteclanteSclanticlantia
clantialclantineiclantisclantiSclantisaclanui
clapiOiclaruXieSclasialclateclateSclatia
clatialclauclaucalualclauceclauceSclaucesa
clauniuclavtieclavtiesclavtieSuras
25 Etruscan words starting with cle...
clelclenclenarclenOiclensclensi
clenSiclenaraSiclenarSicleOclesclesvasbes
clesvasfesclesnescletcleusinascleusinSlcleuste
cleustescleusticlevaclevsinasclevsinSlclevsti (==>)
24 Etruscan words are starting with cli, clO, and clu
(<==) clevsucliamclinclinaclinicliniia
cliniiarasclinsiuclinalclOclOiclOsuOiO
cluetieclumneicluOinciecluOumusOacluteclutiva
clutmstaclutmitacluvenicluveniascluviesa
14 Etruscan words are starting with municli, municlO, and similar
munmuniclatmunicleOmunicletmunicletimunise
muniSXamunismunisuleOmunisvleOmunOuXmunOX
munSalmunsle

In the following paragraphs of the first part of this article [ Part I. (Explanations) ], we will first partially define and elaborate on individual meaning of all the words from the group { cla-, cle-, cli-, clO-, clu- }, and then in the second [ Part II. (Inscriptions) ], we will list all Etruscan inscriptions from my entire collection of "7000+" inscriptions, in which a particular word from this group appears.

What to expect, or, how much complete is the documentation in this article? Though, I tried to add as much information as I have documented up to date with each inscription, it is far from complete, for a few reasons. First, not all the words are known, hence some inscriptions can not be translated at this time, and last but not least, it was not my intent here to discuss the inscriptions but rather just the words from the group { cla-, cle-, cli-,...- }. Hence, no attempt was made to give descriptions for all words in an inscription, but only for those that are discussed throughout the article. This would quickly obscure the focus of the reading. I have made an exception and described one inscription and all the words in it with all at the time available information. You can can check it out by clicking on the following link: ( Etruscologists found the name Claudius, but failed to see it's meaning ).

An astute reader may have noticed, that regardless of our earlier brief detour into another class of words, namely the group { larO... }, each word group including the main group of this article { cla-, cle-, cli-,... }, includes words of different roots or stems, that ordinarily would not be discussed together. So for example the Etruscan word clan (son, man, member) in normal circumstances has nothing to do with either the Etruscan word clet (swear,...) or word clin etc. There are several reasons for this, and one that certainly should not be overlooked is the fact that the Etruscans just like the Phoenicians and ancient Egyptians omitted most of the vowels in their writing. This combined with the immaturity of writing or literacy during the times of the early antiquity may have resulted in the fact that words such as cl, clan and clen could sometimes mean one and the same thing.

The second reason should be more consistent and easier to manage because it follows certain grammatical or phonetic rules, that are common also in other languages, but are particularly interesting due to certain similarities of these so called voice transformations in all the Etruscan, the Greek, as well as in Slovene languages. Incidentally the Etruscologists went wild on these voice transformations explaining for instance that the words clan, clenar and cliniiars are all one and the same word which due to grammatic inflection changed voice "a" <=> "e" <=> "i".

Finally, we should take into account, that some words to date can still not be deciphered, and all we've got is their alphabetical order. Obviously, this last reason is of organizational and of the statistical nature. It allows us to monitor the completeness of our word categories and lists, providing a way for an easy update, maintenance as well as makes user browsing and searching reasonably straightforward.

Before we plunge into details lets review some of the statistics about this group of words as they relate to the "7000+" Etruscan inscriptions. The firs thing to notice is that from this group of words, namely the words that star with the strings { cla..., cle..., cli... } there are all together 256 Etruscan inscriptions to be found in the entire collection of mine which as you know is about "7000" strong. Here is the brake down by the spelling of the subcategories:

  • +188 cla... ( 146 clan... )
  •   +43 cle... ( 17 clen... )
  •     +4 cli...
  •     +3 clO... (O=theta)
  •   +18 clu...
  •   256 TOTAL

In this group of words and inscriptions I have discovered 115 different spellings of the suffixes to these strings, which potentially mean 115 different grammatic forms and/or in the extreme case as many different meanings. Of course the descriptions or explanations are in no uncertain terms final. In fact I prefer to call them hints rather than explanations, though some of them have so far withstood a rigorous consistency testing and scrutiny. Let's be clear that the main objective here is to expose a more complete view and the extent of the available samples of Etruscan language, as well as organize it in ways that should be much more appealing for new additional research and evaluations.

Hence, in the following table you will find precisely that, namely, a collection of similar words in a form of a dictionary, however, this time without a any limitations, what kind of language or grammar similarities are acceptable. Indeed the residue of Etruscan language can be found even in the English language which by many accounts is the youngest of all European languages, that evolved almost a millennium after Etruscans disappeared from the history.

The question of English language as the youngest of the European languages keeps popping up. Though there exist plenty of evidence, that some typically English words have roots in Sanskrit, this together with the entire Germanic, Romanic and Greek imprints combined in that ancient language pails in comparison to the imprint found in the Slavic languages. Indeed, one can argue, that Sanskrit as an artificial language was formed on the common linguistic principles today seen in both the Sanskrit itself as well as other Slavic languages. Moreover, imprint of Slavic languages can be found in all West European languages, and particularly in Greek and Roman, which either invalidates or augments claims of German scientists, that German language adopted and adapted a vast Slavic vocabulary only after the 7th or 8th century AD. Similarly, the age of modern Roman languages would become more clear by closely reevaluating the evolution of European languages by accepting a more inclusive research paradigm.

Linguistically, it is obvious that both Greek and Latin languages are built on top of the structures still present in contemporary Slavic languages, and that the opposite is not evident. On the other hand English is a concoction that evolved as a mixture of mostly Greek, Latin, Germanic languages. In this scheme of things how is it possible to ignore a possibility that Slavic i.e. Venetic traces can be found in Etruscan Language?

It is in the fear of the evidence supporting much larger Slavic presence in European history and evolution of European languages, that both the traditional linguists and historians to this day refuse to undertake a more serious reevaluation and more competent research of ancient history and particularly languages including Sanskrit, Hittite, Greek, Latin and indeed the Etruscan.

At the end we see that it is not only a question about the age of English language, that is at stake here, but rather the entire linguistic structure of the West European linguistics, that will come crumbling down as a house of cards, should we open a debate about Slavic presence in Europe since prehistoric times.

If you had hard time understanding, why the majority of Slavic Venetologists believe it is important, to renew the interests, in new research and reevaluation of the Etruscan language, perhaps a careful examination of the above pointed towards a smoking gun. If you continue to read, in the following table you may find plenty of evidence that what was said so far indeed makes sense. However, the evidence here may not be as convincing for a non-Slavic readers, because there are, to a Slavic and particularly a Slovene reader, many self evident linguistic facts and extensions, which I due to the enormity of the task at hand, I did not care to mention explicitly. Nevertheless, I hope that enough is revealed to start you out on the journey of additional research, or at least to start asking questions, the traditionalists had hopped would newer pop up in our minds.

 

The words { cla..., cle..., cli... } explained
(also known as group "man / kill / swear")

Note, that this is just the first table, namely, the one which does not include the 256 Etruscan inscriptions. As promised in the second part see the menu on the left "Man/Swear/Clean Part II. (cl-)" to get there or click on: Part II (Inscriptions) to review it in a new window. For your convenience this table is spread between the inscriptions. Every time a new word from our class is encountered between inscriptions, the appropriate entry from this table is included.

The discussion and translation of the group "man / kill / swear"
Razlaga in pomeni skupine človek / klan / kleti
Etruscan Slovene English Etruscologists
cl OKRAJŠAVA: član, clan, klan, človek; klati, ... - okrajšavo cl sem našel samo v eni datoteki (001/ca-04) in to le 4x! Primer je resnično reprezentativen -- glej:(marce.tarXnas.larO.cl) in (ma.tarXnas.l.clan) -- glejTudi:clan,claes, ... Abbreviation for clan n/a
cla OKRAJŠAVA: član, clan, klan, človek; klati, ... -- glejTudi: clan, claes, ... Abbreviation for clan n/a
claes kaliti=ma.claes?; klati=ma.clai? (larO.maclaes) -- glejTudi:clan, clavties, clavtieSuras, clavtieOuras, ... You slaughter, stab, kill n/a
claiteS član, klan, klanež; kolješ you the man or member; you slaughter, stab, kill n/a
clalum latinizirana beseda clau / clan -- glejTudi: cl, clan, clau Latinized word clau / clan n/a
clan član, klan, človek, čelan - "tisti ki ima čelo" = človek; "tisti ki se klanja" - član človeskega klana = človek; -- glejTudi: cl, claiteS, clal, clananas, clani, clanies, claniu clanti, clate, clavtie, clavtieSuras, clavtieOuras; clenar; clen, cliam, clin, cluO, clut, ... memner, clan; a man, a human; slaughter, stab, kill son (sin)
clana človeka / člana; klana, mrtva; kolje -- glejTudi: clananas, cl, clan, clanti, clanies, clate, clavtie, clenar; clen, cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... she the slaughtered,...; slaughtering, stabbing, killing. n/a
clanan clanan:   človek / član; klan, umorjen; -- glejTudi: clananas, cl, clan, clanti, clanies, clate, clavtie, clenar; clen, cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... clanan:   man / membered; being killed, murdered, stabbed. n/a
clananas človeka / člana našega (clana.nas) - redko vidna raba besede "clan"; kolje nas; -- glejTudi: cl, clan, clanti, clanies, clate, clavtie, clenar; clen, cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... our men or our members; he/they are slaughtering, stabbing, killing us. n/a
clani ljudje, klanovci, člani; "tisti ki se klanjajo"; -- glejTudi: cl, clan, clanti, clanies, clavtie, clenar; clen,... men or members, those who bow (who show respect); slaughtered or being slaughtered, stabbed, killed. n/a
clanies ljudje, klanovci, člani; "tisti ki se klanjajo"; -- glejTudi: cl, clan, clanti, clanies, clavtie, clenar; clen,... you men or members, those who bow (who show respect); you are slaughtering, stabbing, killing. n/a
claniu človeku, članu; klanju -- glejTudi: cl, clan, clate, clanies, clavtie, clenar; clen, cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... to the man or member; to the slaughted, stabed, killed n/a
claniunia ERR:claniunia=clani.unia; člana (tožilnik) -- glejTudi: cl, clan, clate, clanies, clavtie, clenar; clen, cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... ERR:claniunia=clani.unia; about/ concerning / of clan (Accusative) n/a
claniusa claniusa=clani.usa; ljudje, člani; umorjeni, zaklani -- glejTudi: clan, clate,... men or members; members, men; those murdered, slaughtered n/a
claniuS ljudje, člani; koljejo; ki kolje, klalec, morilec - klalec (morilec-duš); -- glejTudi: clan, clate,... men, members; they are slaughtering, stabbing, killing n/a
clante unorjeni; zaklal te, umoril te; -- glejTudi: cl, clateS, clan, clanti, clanies, clanteS, clate, clatia; clavtie, clenar; clen, ... a kiled; he/she/it slaughters, stabs, kills n/a
clanteS unorjeni; kolješ, umoriš; -- glejTudi: cl, clateS, clan, , clante, clanti, clanies, clate, clatia; clavtie, clenar; clen, ... the kiled; he/she/it slaughters, stabs, kills n/a
clanti ti človek, član - clan.ti; ubiti (glagol); umorjeni -- glejTudi: cl, clan, clate, clanies, clante, clavtie, clenar; clen, cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... you the man or member; to slaughter, stab, kill n/a
clantia človek (s končnico -ija), član'(šija); umorjeni; klalec (morilec-duš); klanje, klanja -- glejTudi: cl, clan, clate, clanies, clante, clavtie, clenar; clen, cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... man, member (like vel'-ia); the killed; the slaughter, stabning, killing n/a
clantial POZOR: nima samostalniške oblike, Etrlgs:(-al=rodilnik); klal -- glejTudi: cl, clan, clate, clanies, clante, clavtie, clenar; clen, cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... he was slaughtering, stabning, killing Suffix -al denotes Genitive.
clantinei Err:clantinei=clanti.nei; (Med več kot 7000 napisi, ima samo eden to besedo) -- glejTudi: cl, clan, clate, clanies, clante, clanti, clavtie, clenar; clen, cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... (Most likely: clanti.nei) n/a
clantis kolješ; POZOR: nima samostalniške oblike, čeprav bi jo danes lahko našli; -- glejTudi: clateS, clan, clate,... You are slaughtering, stabbing, killing; (NOTE: only verb form, though today it exists) n/a
clantisa klalec; klati šel; -- glejTudi: clantis, clantiS, clateS, clan, clate,... killer, the one who slaughters; went slaughtering, stabbing, killing; n/a
clanui klani - tisti, ki so morjeni - (Med več kot 7000 napisi, ima samo eden to besedo) -- glejTudi: cl, clan, clate, clanies, clante, clanti, clavtie, clenar; clen, cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... Those who are being slaughtered, killed. n/a
clapiOi
cla .piOi
Err:clapiOi=cla.piOi - umorjenega popiti [v mitološkem smisku - (krakniti dušo)]; (Med več kot 7000 napisi, ima samo eden to besedo) -- glejTudi: cl, clan, clate, clanies, clante, clanti, clavtie, clenar; clen, cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... Most likely: clapiOi=cla.piOi - drink up the cracked (killed) soul. n/a
claruXieS - (Med več kot 7000 napisi, ima samo eden to besedo) -- glejTudi: cl, clan, clate, clanies, clante, clanti, clavtie, clenar; clen, cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... n/a (Out of more than 7000 inscriptions only one contains this word) n/a
clasial klal - POZOR: nima samostalniške oblike; Etrlgs:(-al=rodilnik); -- glejTudi: clantial, cl, clan, clate, clanies, clante, clavtie, clenar; clen, cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... he was slaughtering, stabning, killing Suffix -al denotes Genitive.
clate morilc'; zaklal te, umoril te; ERR:-N- - glejMy: claNte; -- glejTudi: cl, clateS, clan, clanti, clanies, clatia; -- clavtie, clenar; clen, ... murderer; he/she/it slaughters, stabs, kills you n/a
clateS kolješ; POZOR: nima samostalniške oblike, čeprav bi jo danes lahko našli recimo podobno kot "klatež". -- glejTudi: clan, clate,... you are slaughtering, stabbing, killing; (NOTE: only verb form). n/a
clatia ERR:-N- - glejMy: clatNia; Možno tudi: (klalec [srbizem]; klatje, klatja) -- glejTudi: clavtie, clauceS, clauce, clan, clen ERR:-N- - glejMy: clatNia; There exist Slovene forms that exactly match these forms too. n/a
clatial pretekli čas besede klati; ERR:-N- - glejMy: clatNial; Etrlgs:(-al=rodilnik); -- glejTudi: clatia, cl, clavtie, clauceS, clauce, clan, clen ERR:-N- - glejMy: clatNial; In Slovene suffix -al denotes past tense form. (-al) Suffix -al denotes Genitive.
clau klal, moril [U=V] clav; POZOR: nima samostalniške oblike; Kljub temu vidimo zametke povezave z imenom Klavdij, kot nam zatrjujejo etruskologi za besedo "clavtie" -- glejTudi: clavtie, clauceS, clauce, clan; clen, cleO, cles, cliam, clin, cluO, clut, ... were slaughtering, stabbing, killing; (NOTE: only verb form, however as Etruscologists pointed out for word "clavtie", we can agree with them this time, moreover, the traces of that connection lead to this word here, which also show the consistency of the meaning of the name Claudius.) n/a
claucalual oblika besede klal, moril. Če je to pravilna transkripcija etruščanskega originala, potem je to lep primer nastajanja jezika, kjer se forma preliva v pomen in obratno. -- glejTudi: clau, clauce were slaughtering. If this is correct transcript of the Etruscan script than we have at hand an excellent example of evolving language, where the form and meaning are augmenting each other. Here we can also see that the theory Etruscologists devised about the suffix "-al" which to them represents a Genitive form, poorly fits within the rest of the forms which they failed to account for.
clauce morilce, klavce, ki koljeojo, klauce/i, klavce/i; -- glejTudi: clau, claucalual, clauceS, clavtie, clan, ... murderers, killers, slaughterers. n/a
clauceS morilec, klalec; kolješ, moriš; -- glejTudi: clau, claucalual, clauce, clavtie, clan, ... murderer; you are slaughtering, stabbing, killing; n/a
claucesa klavca, morilca; kolje, mori; -- glejTudi: clau, claucalual, clauce, clavtie, clan, ... murderer (Dative); you are slaughtering, stabbing, killing; n/a
clauniu moriluc, klalcu; koljejo, morijo; -- glejTudi: clau, claucalual, clauce, clavtie, clan, ... to a murderer (Dative); They are slaughtering, stabbing, killing; n/a
clavtie klatite, koljete od: klatiti?; klati? (Obstaja tudi povezava s Klitemnestro! - glej:cluetie) -- glej: [ ca-05 claes ]; Etr: Klavdij = Claudius - glej:[kasDio-05-22]; -- glejTudi: cl, clauceS, clate, clan, clanies, clate, clanies; clavtieSuras, clavtieOuras; clau, claucalual, clauce; clen, clenar; cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... slaughter, stab, kill Claudius family.
clavties klatiš, koljš; -- glejTudi: clavtie, cl, clauceS, clate, clan, clanies, clate, clanies; clavtieSuras, clavtieOuras; clau, claucalual, clauce; clen, clenar; cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... You are slaughtering, stabbing, killing n/a
clavtieSuras
clavtieOuras
clavtieSuras=(clavtie.Suras) ali clavtieOuras=(clavtie.Ouras) -- glejTudi: clavtie, cl, clauceS, clate, clan, clanies, clate, clanies; clavtieSuras, clavtieOuras; clau, claucalual, clauce; clen, clenar; cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... clavtieSuras=(clavtie.Suras) or clavtieOuras=(clavtie.Ouras) n/a
clel klel, zaklel; (Zanimivo je, da so Etruskologi spet izbrali besedo iz podobne pomenske skupine, ki je zamenljiva z našo verzijo [kleti, zaklinjati, rotiti...])

-- glejTudi: cl, clan, clen,...

to curse, to put a spell on someone / something; to call, shout
clen zaeklet, zaklinjati, začarati; čistiti / očistiti dušo - Eng:clean=očisti; - [E=A] klan - clan; - ERR:[clen=clan]? (klati); -- (glejSlika:book-ELA-p222); čistiti - Eng:clean;

-- glejTudi: cl, clenar; clan, clensi, clenSi, cliniiars, clenarSi, cleO, clet, cles, cleusinas, cleuste, cleustes; cluetie; cleva, clesvasbes, clesvasfes, clevsinas, clevsu; cliam, clin, cluO, clut,...,municlet,...

past participle: to curse, to spell; to lift a curse (pp), to purify / clean a soul (pp); clenar, clinii-ar-as, clen-ar-aSi "sons"; (eL-p:83) clente "adoptive son?"; clen-si, clin-si, clen-Si "to the son"
clenar tisti ki je češčen/roten/zaklet ali, ki časti/roti/zaklinja; začaran; ki čisti, čistilec (duš), očiščen -- glejTudi: cl, clen; clan, clensi, clenSi, cliniiars, clenarSi, ... one who is clensed, cleared of a curse or spell; cursed or under a spell (the spelled) clenar, clinii-ar-as, clen-ar-aSi "sons"; (eL-p:83)
(-ar)=plural; (-si, -Si, -aSi)="demonstrative pronoun" (kazalni zaimek) [eL-p87]
clente "adoptive son?";
(-si, -Si)="Dative": clen-si, clin-si, clen-Si "to the son"
clenaraSi
cliniiars
zaklet, preklet, razklet si; - očiščen si grehov; - glej: (clini+iara="jari in tegobe"); Err: clenarSi=clenaraSi? - (Na teh ponesrečenih besedah so etruskologi bili najbolj aktivni in produktivni) -- glejTudi: clenarSi, cliniiars You are cursed; You are clear of the spells, You are cleaned of sins;

Err: clenarSi=clenaraSi? - (The Etruscologists were the most inspired by these cases...)

(See bellow:)
The Etruscologists were the most inspired by these cases, they were the most productive here and managed to discover and/or devise the most of the Etruscan grammar in this "vicinity"? NOTE: the Etruscologists have attributed two different suffix combinations to the same grammatical scheme, namely, plural dative form of the word "son" - "clenaraSi", and "cliniiars" both to mean (to the sons). The latter also includes a sound transformation   ["a" ==> "e"].
POZOR: etruskologi so dodelili tej rešitvi dva primera:   (1) "clenaraSi" sinovom (prva oblika)- (to the sons [same as: cliniiars]); MNOŽINA (Plural) + Dative --> (clan + -ar + -Si); -- glej:(el-p:83-85,143);   (2) "cliniiars" cliniiars=(to the sons [same as: clenaraSi])); Dajalnik množine nato tvorimo še z dodatkom obrazila "-Si" (-Si): clenarSi; cliniiars=(to the sons); Locative: clenOi=(in/at/on the son) -- glej:(el-p:83-85,143) -- glejTudi: clenarSi
clenOi ljudje, smrtniki, duše; prekleti, zarečeni; odrečeni, očiščeni grehov; Err:clenOi=clanti; Zgleda, da je "clenOi" le akademska konstrukcija etruskologov. -- Etruskologi: pri, ob, na sinu, s sinom (mestnik ednina). -- glej:(el-p:83) -- glejTudi: cl, clan, clate, clanies, clavtie, clenar; clanti men, living souls; the cursed; those clear of spells, curses, sins; Err:clenOi=clanti - I found no inscription with the word "clenOi", it looks to be a pure academic construct made by the Etruscologists. (-Oi)="Locative (singular)" ('in', 'on' or 'at' the son);
clens Err:clans=clansi?; -- glejTudi: clenSi Err:clans=clansi? n/a
clensi si član (clan.si); ti čistiš / očistiš dušo - Eng:clean=očisti; -- glejTudi: cl, clen, clenar, cleva; clan, cliniiars; clenarSi, clenSi; cleO; cles, cleS; cleusinas, cleuste, cleustes; cleva, clesvasbes, clesvasfes, clevsinas, clevsu; cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... you curse or spell; you lift a curse, you purify / clean a soul; (-si, -Si)="Dative": clen-si, clin-si, clen-Si "to the son"
clenSi si član (clan.si); ti čistiš / očistiš dušo - Eng:clean=očisti; -- glejTudi: cl, clen, clenar, cleva; clan, cliniiars; clenarSi, clensi; cleO; cles, cleS; cleusinas, cleuste, cleustes; cleva, clesvasbes, clesvasfes, clevsinas, clevsu; cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... you curse or spell; you lift a curse, you purify / clean a soul; (-si, -Si)="Dative": clen-si, clin-si, clen-Si "to the son"
cleO zaklinjal, zaklinjati; [O=s,S,t] - cles, clet; -- glejTudi: cl, clenar, cleva; clan, clensi, cliniiars, clenarSi, cles, cleusinas, cleuste, cleustes; clet, cluetie cleva, clevsinas, clevsu,... was cursing, coursed; enchanted - sweared upon n/a
cles preklinjaš, zaklinjaš; [s=S,O=(th),t] - cleS, cleO, clet; -- glejTudi: clesvasbes, clesvasfes, sicleS you curse; you enchant - chant, you swear upon celebration
cleS preklinjaš, zaklinjaš; [S=s,O=(th),t] - cles, cleO, clet; -- glejTudi: clesvasbes, clesvasfes, sicleS you curse; you enchant - chant, you swear upon celebration
clesvasbes roti, preti - igInterp: (cles)=preklinja (vas)=ves (bes)=bes; -- ([F=B] transf. lahko PostEtru); -- glejTudi: clan, clen, clenar; clensi, cleu, clev, ... to implore, conjure, entreat, threaten; assert; n/a
clesnes preklinjaš, zaklinjaš; [s=S,O=(th),t] - cleS, cleO, clet; -- glej: tlesnal: vrgel, eksnil (vrgel v usta); tlesknil (po tleh, z jezikom); tukaj spal - Dial:tle=tu,snal=spal,sanjal

-- glejTudi: cleusinas, clesvasbes, clesvasfes, sicleS; tlesnas, tlesnasa, tlesnei

you are cursing, chanting, swearing upon; you fall, throw, drink up n/a
clet zaklet, preklet; zaklan, uničen; Bor:cleva=klical (aorist od clevat) [t=s,S,O=(th)] - cles, cleS, cleO;
gr:[caleO=klicati]; Ime Diocletian je izvajano iz: [díos kletos ("sky-called")]
-- glejTudi:cles, clen; cluetie; municlet, municlat, municleO, munisuleO, munisvleO
you are cursed; you are enchanted - chant, spell is upon you n/a
cleusinas zaklel si nas; "preklinjajoč/zaklinjajoč nas"; svečenik; -- glejTudi:cleusinSl, clen, clev, cleva, clevsu you are/have cursed/(-ing) us; you are/have enchanted/(-ing) - chanted/(-ing) us; You've put a spell upon us! n/a
cleusinSl Err:cleusinSl=cleu.si.n.Sl ? - n/a; -- glejTudi:cleusinas, clen, clev, cleva, clevsu n/a n/a
cleustes preklinjaš, zaklinjaš; pozornost, opozoriti, opozarjš -- glejTudi:cleuste, cleusti, cles, ... you are cursing; you are enchanting; You are casting a spell upon us! n/a
cleusti Err:cleusti=cleus.ti - Ti preklinjaš, zaklinjaš; pozornost, opozoriti, Ti opozarjš; -- glejTudi:cleuste, cleustes, cles, ... You (singular) are cursing, enchanting; You (singular) are casting a spell upon us! n/a
clevsinas zaklel si nas; "preklinjajoč/zaklinjajoč nas"; svečenik; -- glejTudi:cleusinSl, clen, clev, cleva, clevsu you are/have cursed/(-ing) us; you are/have enchanted/(-ing) - chanted/(-ing) us; You've put a spell upon us! n/a
clevsinSl Err:clevsinSl=cleu.si.n.Sl ? - n/a -- glejTudi:cleusinas, clen, clev, cleva, clevsu n/a n/a
clevsti Err:clevsti=cleus.ti - Ti preklinjaš, zaklinjaš; pozornost, opozoriti, Ti opozarjš -- glejTudi:cleuste, cleustes, cles, ... You (singular) are cursing, enchanting; You (singular) are casting a spell upon us! n/a
clevsu kleli so, prekleti so -- glejTudi:clen,clev,clevsinas They are cursed/(-ing); They are enchanted/(-ing) - chanted/(-ing); n/a
aclina na klin, o besiti na klin - (a.clina); preklinja, očisti grehov / zakletev -- glejTudi:aclinei,;clin... to hang up on a rack, on a peg; he swears; to swear, course, courses; to clear of spells or sins n/a
clin klin, kjluka, obešalnik; -- glej: cliam="preklinjam, zaklinjam"; -- glej:"te.cliam, tec.liia.m" -- glejTudi: clin..., aclina, aclinei; clan, clavtie, clauceS, clauce, clen, cleO, cles, cliam, clini, clinsi, cluO, clut,... a hanger, a hook, a peg n/a
clina preklinja, kolne, zaklinja; na klina = na klin, obesiti na klin - (a.clina); -- glejTudi: clan, clavtie, clauceS, clauce, clen, cleO, cles, cliam, clin, cluO, clut,...; aclina he hangs up on a rack, on a peg; he swears, courses; he clears of spells or sins. n/a
clini zaklinja / moli za odpusščenje - glej:cliniiaras=(..clini.iaras); - glej: eL-p143; -- glejTudi: clan, clavtie, clauceS, clauce, clen, cleO, cles, cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... You hang up on a rack, on a peg; You swear, cours; Clear me of spells or sins. n/a
cliniiaras zaklinjane/ molitev za odvračanje bolečine - (clini+iara="jari in tegobe") - clinat=zaklinjati/moliti, -- glejTudi: clan, clavtie, clauceS, clauce, clen, cleO, cles, cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... swearing, asking to relieve pain and suffering (iar)=jar; sinovom - (to the sons); Locative: clenOi=(in/at/on the son) - glej:(el-p:83-85,143);
clinsi zaklinjajoč; zaklinjaš- (you chant); očistiti, povisati rank, dvigniti swearing, asking to relieve pain and suffering; rise n/a
uclinal zaklinjal; čistil; vklenjal swearing; chaining (to chain) n/a
clO,
clOi,
clOsuOiO
n/a -glej:clOsuOiO=clO.suOiO - kljub temu, da nekaj napisov vendarle obstaja s temi črkami, bi bilo preveč spekulativno rayvijati širšo obravnavo teh besed. Dokler ne bomo imeli drugih besed, ki nam bodo namignile prave možnosti, naj le omenim opazko, da tukaj črka "O" glasovno bolj ustreya našemu "o", kot pa grški theti. -- glejTudi:clOi, clOsuOiO n/a n/a
cluetie prekleto, zakleto; zaklano, umorjeno - čeprav je med vsemi meni dostopnimi etruščanskimi napisi mogoče najti le eno osamljeno besedo "cluetie", je zelo lep primer ki kaže, da imajo imena kot sta Klitemnestra in Klavdij koren kleti / klati. -- glejTudi:cles, clen; cluetie; municlet, municlat, municleO, munisuleO, munisvleO Cursed, spelled; killed - Though I found a single lonely word "cluetie", it is an excellent example of pointer to the meaning of the names such as Clytemnestra and Claudius. Needless to say that to a non-Slavic reader or linguists to whom Slavic languages represent a challenge may not appreciate these findings. n/a
clumnei član, klan, človek, čelan - "tisti ki ima čelo" = človek; "tisti ki se klanja" - član človeskega klana = človek; -- glejTudi: clan, cl, claiteS, clal, clananas, clani, clanies, claniu clanti, clate, clavtie, clavtieSuras, clavtieOuras; clenar; clen, cliam, clin, cluO, clut, ... memner, clan; a man, a human; slaughter, stab, kill n/a
cluOincie clute=clate - ženske / člana; klane, mrtve; koljete; kolje te -- glejTudi: clana, cl, clan, clanti, clanies, clate, clavtie, clenar; clen, cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... she the slaughtered,...; killed woman; slaughtering, stabbing, killing. n/a
cluOumusOa Klitemnestra (Clytamnestra) - ni slučaj, da je ta beseda v skupini besed s pomenom klati; - glej: clutmsta (tE-pg:106,7, img=eL-p:158); -- glejTudi: clutmsta, cluetie, clan, clavtie, clauceS, clauce, clen, cleO, cles, cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... Clytamnestra n/a
clute clute=clate - ženske / člana; klane, mrtve; koljete; kolje te -- glejTudi: clana, cl, clan, clanti, clanies, clate, clavtie, clenar; clen, cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... she the slaughtered,...; killed woman; slaughtering, stabbing, killing. n/a
clutiva ženske / člana; klane, mrtve; koljete; kolje te (cluti=clati) -- glejTudi: clana, cl, clan, clanti, clanies, clate, clavtie, clenar; clen, cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... she the slaughtered,...; killed woman; slaughtering, stabbing, killing. n/a
clutmsta Klitemnestra (Clytamnestra) - ni slučaj, da je ta beseda v skupini besed s pomenom klati; - glej: cluOumusOa (tE-pg:106,7, img=eL-p:158); -- glejTudi: cluOumusOa, clutmita, cluetie, clan, clavtie, clauceS, clauce, clen, cleO, cles, cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... Clytamnestra n/a
cluveni imenovani, cleva=klical (aorist od clevat) - beseda v tej "clevat" je starejša oblika od "sloveti" (sloveneti). - cluvenias=cluveni.as - Pyrg-tab(Bor): -- glejTudi:clen,..., cluvenias An old Slavic form of this word means "called, named" and is derived from "to call". This is also related to the word to speak which is also believed to be an element in the name "Veneti", and "Sloveneti" which in modern form is the name Slovenci (Slovenians). Of course the words "to curse", "to swear", "to pray, beg for mercy" still remain part of the meaning here. n/a
cluviesa n/a n/a n/a

 

The group "mun..." (thunder and lightning)

There are a few words that appear to be related to the { cle- } subgroup, and form an independent group of its own. Apart from the few that contain the strings "cla, clet, cleO" they seem to be related to spiritual world due to the word "muni" which seems to be inherited from Asiatic Storm God, of which the Hittite's Sius, and Greek Zeus, are as words the closest to Etruscan god Usil. The words containing the word "muni" may be yet another way to refer to mythical aspect of thunder and lightning. All these words are listed in the following table.

Discussion and translation of a similar group "mun ..."
Etruscan Slovene English Etruscologists
mun manj-; glej:munSal (mi.mun.S.al); SrHr:munja=strela/grom -- GlejTudi: mun, municlat, municlet, municleti, municleO, munisuleO, munise, muniS, munisvleO, munSal, cleO, cles, clet, Xamunis less; thunder Etrusscologs have many unfounded solutions for the "mun..." words - see: municlat
municlat meni zakleti; od boga Muni (groma) zaklet - (Muni=Htt:Storm god), SrHr:munja=strela/grom, -- GlejTudi: mun, municlat, municlet, municleti, municleO, munisuleO, munise, muniS, munisvleO, cleO, cles, clet, Xamunis to curse, to spell; (Etrusscologs have many unfounded solutions for the "mun..." words) See below:
mun-, muni, muni-s, muni-s-ta-s, muni-cle-th, muni-cle-t, muni-vle-th, mun-sle, mun-th "place, hypogeal place, tomb";

munth "adornment, order"; "honoring" < "lofty deed"; munthu "one who polishes"; munthux, munthx, munthu "female attendant to deities", "elegance, Munda (allegory)"

-- Lat: mundus "women's cosmetics, world"; Greek kosmos "order, female adornment, world order, universe"

-- Lat: monumentum "tomb"; munam "to think, remember?"; muna-ta "this place", munistas "this place"

municleth, munisuleth "(under) orders (to)" locative plural munsle "orders" munis, munise "to commend" munista "commended, sworn to" munis- "to endow, to take charge of" munistas "gift" < *munes-

-- Lat: munus, muneris < munes- "service, tax, gift"

municleO meni zakletl; od boga Muni (groma) zaklel - (Muni=Htt:Storm god); -- GlejTudi: mun, municlat, municlet, municleti, munisuleO, munise, muniS, munisvleO, cleO, cles, clet curse over myself, cursed by God Muni (Thunder); Etrusscologs have many unfounded solutions for the "mun..." words - see: municlat
municlet meni zakleti; od boga Muni (groma) zaklet - (Muni=Htt:Storm god); -- GlejTudi: mun, municlat, municlet, municleti, municleO, munisuleO, munise, muniS, munisvleO, cleO, cles, clet curse casted over myself, cursed by God Muni (Thunder); Etrusscologs have many unfounded solutions for the "mun..." words - see: municlat
municleti meni zakleti; od boga Muni (groma) zaklet - (Muni=Htt:Storm god); -- GlejTudi: mun, municlat, municlet, municleO, munisuleO munise, muniS, munisvleO, cleO, cles, clet to curse over myself, cursed by God Muni (Thunder); Etrusscologs have many unfounded solutions for the "mun..." words - see: municlat
munise "meni se"; "se pomanjšal (glej:ca-00 munSal)" -- GlejTudi: mun, municlat, municlet, municleO, munisuleO munise, muniS, munisvleO, cleO, cles, clet it has to myself; grow smaller Etrusscologs have many unfounded solutions for the "mun..." words - see: municlat
muniS manjšas; mešaš; SrHr:mutiš=mečkaš,mešaš; -- glejTudi: mun, munis, munise, munSal, muni, Xamunis you grow smaller; mix, mixing Etrusscologs have many unfounded solutions for the "mun..." words - see: municlat
Xamunis ga jeziti, jeziti se - SrHr:munja=strela/grom - glej: (cae.siprisni.usu.turce.hercles.clen.ce.Xamunis...) -- GlejTudi: municlat, municlet,municleO,munisuleO,munisvleO munise, muniS, munisvleO be angry, to rage - SrHr:munja=thunder n/a
munisuleO meni zakleti; od boga Muni (groma) zaklet - (Muni=Htt:Storm god); -- GlejTudi: mun, municlat, municlet, municleO, munisuleO, munisvleO, munise, muniS, munisvleO to curse over myself, cursed by God Muni (Thunder); Etrusscologs have many unfounded solutions for the "mun..." words - see: municlat
munisvleO meni zakleti; od boga Muni (groma) zaklet - (Muni=Htt:Storm god); -- GlejTudi: mun, municlat, municlet, municleO, munisuleO, munisvleO, munise, muniS, munisvleO to curse over myself, cursed by God Muni (Thunder); Etrusscologs have many unfounded solutions for the "mun..." words - see: municlat
munOuX - -- book:ela-p32 [ ogledalo ] -- glejTudi: mun, munOX Etrusscologs have many unfounded solutions for the "mun..." words - see: municlat ogledalo
munOX - -- glejTudi: mun, munOuX, munSal, munsle n/a Etrusscologs have many unfounded solutions for the "mun..." words - see: municlat
munSal manjšal -- glejTudi: mun, munOuX, munsle it has to myself; grow smaller n/a
munsle nevihta, prepir, bliska in grmi - SrHr:munja -- glejTudi: mun, munOuX, munSal thunder Etrusscologs have many unfounded solutions for the "mun..." words - see: municlat

 

Etruscollogists and the word "clan" (son)

Arguably, for the Etruscologists, the word "clan", along with the words "turu, turce" and "mulu...", is one the most important words, around which, it seems, they have been able to build their entirely fictive grammatical structure of the Etruscan language. The word "clan" appears in many inscriptions. I believe the famous Slovenian Venetologist Matej Bor  was the first researcher who beside the apparent visual clues, used sound scientific and linguistic models to successfully uncover a reasonable meaning for it, namely, "a man" or "a member". His interpretation of this word, enabled him to consistently translate a number of Etruscan inscriptions. Though, this meaning is broader than the one Etruscologists picked (a son), as we can see, it still was not sufficient to apply to a vast number of Etruscan inscriptions. Though, this meaning is broader than the one Etruscologists picked (a son), as we can see, it still was not sufficient to apply to a vast number of Etruscan inscriptions, moreover, it became obvious that current meaning nothing but inadequate in some new situations, which was a rather disturbing notion, casting new doubts even on the up to date the most solid of all translations, namely, the famous Etruscan inscription on the mirror with "Junona breastfeeding Hercules". However, nobody, not even Bor, who was by then already a very old man, never mentioned anything about this annoying discovery. Not surprisingly, the inspiration for the solution again came from obvious hints found in Slovenian language, which I believe did not escape Bor's attention however, without acknowledging certain concepts of Etruscan mythology, it is impossible to see the connection to the meaning, Bor derived from the Slovenian words čelo (forehead) and Russian "čelovek" (man) which is "človek" or "čelan" in Slovenian, and the disturbingly different, also Slovenian, meaning "klan, zaklan" (slaughtered, stabbed, killed).

Milk Gods offer and drink on parties beyond. However, it is not hard to imagine that nobody would have thought the missing translation could be slaughtered, stabbed, murdered (klan, zaklan). Indeed, I believe this possibility must have been dismissed even by Bor, precisely because at the time little was known about the Etruscan mythology, and religious beliefs about gods giving and taking human life by means of a feast, often seen as a party beyond, whereby gods take human life by cracking the souls out of their egg like shells, drink it (the life), and even return it to the worthy by breast-feeding the dying and exhausted human beings, though the evidence of these Etruscan beliefs, was in front of everybody's noses all along. Namely, how ironic can it be? The enigmatic image of "a Goddess breast-feeding a grownup at a party" dying=clan   or   ' a mortally wounded man ' = clan   (Hercules)", was an invaluable inspiration to early researchers when they finalized their thoughts about half of the meaning for the word clan, namely "a man" or "a member of human race" and "a son" respectively. The fact, that there could be no doubt about the meaning of the inscription on this mirror, even when one has no clue about its spiritual meaning, makes for a half of the excitement here. Reconciling the meaning of the two different almost irreconcilable meanings that can both be also found in the Slovenian language in the same word is a second part! Ironically, the proposition of the Etruscologists for the translation of our word "clan" becomes less plausible than that of Matej Bor, namely, either "a man" or "a member of human race". And all this was mysteriously hidden away beneath the Etruscan spiritual or mythological vail, as if the Etruscans, had known 2000 years ahead of time, they would have to protect their identity :)

Etruscans and Venetic spirituality.

I find the circumstances, in which this artifact reveals a wide array of Etruscan facts not only about their language but also about their beliefs, and particularly its magical duality in which one can read a miraculous message as that from everyday Etruscan reality, on one side, and from their spiritual world, on the other, almost as a fantastic mystical deception of their Etruscan or Venetic creators.

I say Venetic because, we have reasons to believe, that Etruscans sought spiritual advice from their friends and neighbors Veneti, proof of which can clearly be found in the so called Atestine (the alphabet) tablets. In fact the name "Alphabet tablets" is no longer appropriate, because it reflects only the view of the Etruscologists, who failed to recognize in them the obvious Venetic grammar reference tablet. Hence, it is not at all inconceivable, that the Etruscan priests and priestesses were indeed of Venetic origin, who made sure, that their "knowledge of the spiritual world", remained a well guarded secret, even when written down in stone or on a clay or bronze tablet! Atestine tablets more directly reveal the secrecy aspects of Venetic and Etruscan spiritual writing, as we have only hinted for the inscription on the mirror depicting Uno and Hercules (Goddess breastfeeding a man).

These are the reasons, that the translation of the crucial word on the inscription describing "Goddess breastfeeding a man", which according to both sides with a minor corrections is indeed correct, becomes questionable, should we try to use it in the same way on some other yet to be successfully translated inscriptions. It obviously has two "different" meanings in different places, yet if viewed in the described Etruscan spiritual context, the two meanings can miraculously become one and the same.

I doubt, that Bor, would have missed the alternative meaning, had he been younger and lived long enough, to finish his work. I am almost certain he'd discover the missing links, because one of such dedication and impeccable thoroughness as was his, can not displace the significance of the drinking and breastfeeding rituals at the time of death, birth, and indeed, the revival of the weakened by their Gods, the images, as well as words of which, Etruscans sprinkled allover their art and inscriptions.

But let's not forget, without the great vision of the Slovenian researcher Matej Bor who was first to prove there was a deeper meaning in Etruscan words than meaningless names of the dead and their family relationships, it would be hard to imagine anyone would ever be able to unlock the broader meaning and structure of their language, never mind their beliefs and mysteries of their spiritual world. In the mid 80's Bor's study and work were thoroughly scrutinized before the Slovenian public eye, but it is hard to imagine world wide academics didn't notice his research throughout the 60's and 70's. It is quite obvious that eventually even the Etruscologists benefited from it.

His success was shocking to the western linguists and the Etruscologists because it had a potential to cause irreparable havoc in the traditional beliefs that Slavic tribes and their language could not have been around during the time of the Etruscans, or even worse, that the Slavs, indeed, are the direct descendants of the enigmatic Veneti, who incidentally were more so than Etruscans the prime subject of Bor's research. Very likely the above is the reason, officially his work was silently ignored, and remained vastly unknown, beyond an obscure group of a few Slovene academic dissidents and researchers. This gave rise to the embarrassed Etruscologists and their in favor of the traditional IE theories biased research, which are designed to resist more up to date views, particularly with the regards to the Veneti, and would like to maintain over a thousand years old beliefs that "barbarian" Slavs arrived into Europe during the so called Migration Period between AD 300-700, and that Veneti are an Italic tribe, with perhaps some Germanic traces, but could under no circumstances be related to the Slavs who were not around a half a millennial after Etruscans were instinct.

I do believe that the treatment that the Slovenian researcher Bor received from the academic community was designed to serve as a determent, not to follow his path to most of the young Slavic scholars. In the light of this unhealthy, behind the scene academic squabbles it is not at all inconceivable that the Etruscologists with the help of traditionalists began plotting to undermine Bor's work, on one side by adapting his research as if it were their own, and on the other avoid any explanations that could reveal to be dangerously close to Slavic interpretation. Indeed, the word "clan" seems to be from the first category of addoption, namely, Etruscologists claim its meaning is "son", which actually belongs to a subclass of the meanings from Bor's research. Regardless of this, let's have a look at another word from the same group, namely, "clel", which in accordance to the Etruscologists means "to call, shout", whereas in Slovenian it means "to swear, to chant" - "klel, kleti" (swore, to swear). It is obvious, that Etruscologists got a clue from the Slovenian languages despite the fact, that they refuse to admit this indeed was their "etymological" slip across the border into Venetic territory. Indeed, seen here, in an uncovered spiritual context there isn't any difference between the two meanings, namely, chanting is calling to the spirits!

It may very well be, that Bor, was inspired by then yet unpublished Etruscologists' findings, however, he has the Slovenian Etymological Dictionary to back up his solution. On the other hand, the consistency of the continuing research based on Slovene language revealed here, proves allover again that ignoring all the evidence pointing towards Venetic i.e. Slavic residue in Etruscan language represents a considerable academic flaw, leading to a major error in judgment as to which scientific research methodology to employ and subsequently exhibit numerous misses in their linguistic work.

Nevertheless, regardless of how well one or the other meaning of the word "clan" fits a particular translation, the lack of appreciation for Slavic languages among the most diligent Etruscologists works against them, clearly pointing out their flaws, and should be used as a catalyst for additional research in this area.

It was my intent in this article, to point out how much of the linguistic evidence, which undoubtedly speaks against the narrow point of view, that Etruscan language could not have been related to any known European language, the Etruscologists have ignored. Moreover, their superficial work remained unchallenged by the established and "competent" western and newly "liberated" Slavic linguists. To this end, let's turn our attention back to the word "clan"!

Since the Etruscologists have concentrated so much effort and focus around their belief that most of the Etruscan words are either meaningless family or personal names of the deceased, a large number of potential grammatic forms in which the word "clan" appeared in inscriptions, as well as its frequency in which it appeared not only in tombs but also in the inscriptions on gifts to the Gods in a form votive objects, made it a good candidate to find in it the grammar supporting meanings such as "son of", "daughter of...", or "father/mother of..." and alike. Such an interpretation fits very well between a bunch of meaningless names. Therefor, the word "clan" (son) became the pivotal word of their grammatic theories.

The abundance of different grammatic forms this word can be found in the inscriptions, must have given the Etruscologists plenty of confidence to convince them it should not be hard to come up with some kind of grammar. Pressed by their predisposition about the proof that their version of the word "clan" (son) is correct, they needed to find a suitable Genitive suffix. Once they found it, a plural form was a must and also easy to arbitrarily pick from as it seemed a countless number of suitable cases, if you'll remember, they had 115 different forms of words with the stems { cla-, e-, i-, ... } to pick from. However, the odds of picking a correct solution out of so many choices randomly are almost nonexistent, and they came back to haunt the Etruscologists, when they soon found themselves at the dead end proclaiming, they had learned all there was about the Etruscan language, and that nothing would ever come from any further research of this ancient language.

 

Etruscollogists fel into their own trap

Though initially they may have been compelled to impose an arbitrary structure to the grammar they created, only to increase the odds of breaking any and no matter how remote resemblances with Slavic languages, I believe the freedom to cherry pick anything you like, proved to be the trap they fell in. In the lieu of that, search for anything that looked Greek, Latin, Celtic or Germanic was on, and if unsuccessful the pattern had to reinforce their claim that Etruscan does not belong to so called IE family of languages. To anyone using only a half of brain this strategy must look suspicious, nevertheless it is one consistently employed by the Etruscologists. Indeed, their plan and method produced results which ran counter to those of the Venetologists, who on the other hand discovered many recognizable Slavic patterns almost in all but particularly in the early Etruscan scripts.

Studying their work concerning the decipherment of Etruscan language, one can see that the Etruscologists have, under the guidance of "competent" western linguists embarked on a very abstract theoretical and highly experimental inventive empirical path, inventing new linguistic patterns, rather than a comparative path examining existing features. It also seems that their decision to exclude comparative linguistic is driven by their belief that Etruscan language is not related to any known language, and is designed to reinforce this belief between the laymen. Their method is designed to appease the "believers" that the Etruscans and the Veneti could not have had anything in common with Slavs. Their work may even appear trustworthy, scientifically very sound, uncompromising and authoritative to a layman or even to a casual professional observer. However, any premise which is biased towards any solution based on groundless beliefs or convictions, as are those which in order to exclude Slavs from Europe before the early middle ages, refuse to see the obvious relationship between them and the Veneti, in itself, is not scientific!

It can easily be believed, that the above premise became the basis for the Etruscologists' fundamental rule by which all their research and decipherment of Etruscan language was governed. Though this rule was never published, its presence is felt throughout their work, and should be something like the following:

"If anything in an Etruscan text sounded Slavic it was to be dismissed, and a new different explanation should be found!"
In this scheme of things a random picking and choosing is no longer a problem, particularly since the only alternative to hide an overwhelming body of evidence pointing to similarities between Etruscan and Slavic i.e. Venetic dialects was, to define the Etruscan language to be an unknown or a chaotic variety of words and grammar.

Meanwhile for those holding the the other point of view, which does not exclude Slavic languages, every pattern is worth examining and testing for consistency with earlier findings, whereby the resulting conclusions tend to evolve over time. The Etruscologists on the other hand tend to project their findings in a more permanent manner with a deceiving sense of finality attached to them. An excellent example of all that was discussed above can be observed in the ways in which the Etruscologists treated the word "clan".

The fact that they ignored over 60 different cases of possible inflections, while picking out three or four for which they developed elaborate narratives supporting their theory that Etruscan scripts are mostly lists of names which rather frequently describe partial family trees, supports my claim above, that their method backfired and that they found themselves caught in their own trap. Namely, once you, arbitrarily select a solution, you are most likely to run against the invisible natural order of things, which due to its obscurity appears to be chaotic, hence a random selection may seem to be as good as any. Indeed, when starting a research this is a normal course of actions, which have to be followed by a repetitive verification, adjustment and even a new rebuild - correction processes. However, the Etruscologists as it appears didnt't seem to care, or bother to check their selections with respect to the numerous remaining cases.

They must have believed that the grammatically challenged western audiences will most likely not notice there are many unexplained suffices for the word they claimed to have a root meaning of "son"! It is true that realizing they ignored almost ninety percent of all other forms of this word in the Etruscan texts by itself, is not a sufficient argument to dispute their theory. However, a Slavic speaking reader who is able to feel the familiarity with many Etruscan word patterns, will indeed notice how much the Etruscologists have skipped and ignored. In the book "The Etruscan Language (An Introduction)" by G. & L. Bonafante, [eL-p83] we can see how the Etruscologists used their methodology to build grammatic concoctions devised as the basis for their interpretation of the Etruscan language. Some of their theories are rather convincing, and they have written splendid narratives about their inventions. They are particularly kin explaining the family names, and relationships between the family members. Out of all that they are even able to reconstruct a social structure of the Etruscan society, which apparently is revealed by the use of names in matronymic forms. Also, they discovered many famous Latin names in the inscriptions, for instance related to word "clan" is the name "Claudius". I already mentioned the word "clan" (son) played a pivotal role in the theory behind the Etruscan grammar, the Etruscologist invented! Here is a marvelous example of linguistic knowledge and sophistication in which the Etruscologists shine:

A special ending "-sa" or "-isa", is a "demonstrative pronoun", used with "genitive" of personal names, meaning "the one of" indicating "patronymic" ...
This narrative is rather impressive, however, it doesn't tell us that it accounts only for an extremely minuscule part of the cases found in the Etruscan inscriptions, regardless of the fact that it was arbitrarily selected and most likely doesn't fit into the overall scheme of things very well. All the Etruscan grammar, invented by the Etruscologists can basically be summarized in two or three tables like the following one:

How the Etruscologists concocted the grammar of Etruscan language around the word "son"
Case Singular Plural
Nominative: clan clenar
Genitive: clans n/a
Dative: clanSi clenarSi, cliniiarS
Accusative: clan clenar

Of course the above table and my reference to it as a simple "summary" of the grammar of Etruscan language as discovered by the Etruscologists should be viewed as a sarcastic critique, however, I do believe it is by no means unjust, but rather quite adequate, especially if we take into consideration how much of the linguistic evidence they have deliberately chose to ignore, and this article exposes just that!

 

Etruscologists found the name Claudius, but failed to see it's meaning
(Etruscan inscriptions: group "man, swear, clean...")

We can not leave this discussion without pointing out that Etruscan words for the names Claudius (clavtie), and Clytemnestra (cluOumusOa, clutmsta). They both appear in the above group of words. It is very interesting that these two words which do not seam to have the same stem or root, actually have a common trunk, both, in terms of their "form" as well as the "meaning". The "form" here being a synonym for syntax or the spelling. Never mind the fact that the meaning of the two words is related, it isn't at all obvious what the meanings of each might be. If we could crack through the above claims we may have a better appreciation for the idea that a group of dissimilar words represented with semi stems such as { cla-, cle-, cli-, clO-, clu- } could actually be bundled together under the same category.

 

Claudius and Clytemnestra an odd linguistically related couple

Another reason I wish to mention a special relationship these two names have with regards to to our discussion here is because they are an excellent example, of how in prehistory, and by that I mean The Bronze Age and the time before the antiquity, in the early stages of the last major language development phase which began during the early evolution of literacy, most words had some meaning which was true even for the names. For instance the word "brook" in Slovene "potok" actually means "a flow, flowing" - an inherent meaning which requires additional explanations for a non-Slavic speaker, but isn't essential for a proper command of the language. This fact about the inherent meaning in words is brutally neglected by most modern linguists, which at least in the area of studies of the antique languages points to their unbelievable incompetency. The very same pathology is evident also in the treatment of the Etruscan language, which Etruscologists view as a set consisting of a bunch of meaningless names. But let's refrain from this criticism and check out the inscription in which the Etruscologists discovered the name Claudius. At the beginning of this article I've mentioned, that here I do not attempt to explain the inscriptions, but only lists them, in order to point to all the places where the words, we are studying here, appear in Etruscan texts. However, here discussing how the names "Claudius" and "Clytemnestra" fit into the picture, I made an exception. Following is the inscription with the word Claudius:

The inscription with the word Claudius   -   [001/ca-06-cX#02]
Etruscan: laris .avle .larisal .clenar .sval .cn .SuOi .cEriXunce .apac .atic .saniSva .Oui .cesu .clavtieSuras .i
Slovnsko: Gospod (lord) življenja, duša v prehodu povita na grmadi "žrtvenika" kot (naj bi) ... v sen prešla tukaj čez ...
English: Lord of the life, soul in transit wrapped on the funeral-pile as a sacrificial lam let it ... pass into a dream, over this crossing

The following indented text is not directly related to our discussion which really is about the words from our class { cla-, cle-, cli-, clO-, clu- }, in which we find both Claudius and Clytemnestra, but is here to facilitate the understanding of the above inscription [001/ca-06-cX#02]. This inscription and the word (cvriXunce) are taken from another article, only to point out where the Etruscologists discovered the family name Claudius. They, however, did not provide the translation, and the translation I provided does not reach the word "clavtieSuras", though the meaning of the word "clavtie" may, in a mythical jargon or sense, have some relation to the underworld and soul cracking ...

If we look at the image of the inscription [001/ca-05-cX#01] from the Tomb of Rilievi (Banditaccia) in Cerveteri, we will notice that "cvriXunce" is spelled as "cEriXunce" i.e. with letter "E" rather than "V". This is indicative of a possibility that the researchers were aware of a potentially inflammatory and a highly controversial meaning, which could be explained with the help of the Slovenian language. However, even if somebody was playing a game here, the fact is that either spelling with the letter "E" or "V" can be interpreted with the help of Slovenian language. The first meaning (with "V") has to do with a fire, funerary pile, punitive burning on a pile, while the second describes a smashing of waves into a rocky beach, or rocking of an anchored boat in rough waters. Though the two are mutually exclusive, and that at this point the one describing fire is more consistently translating the available inscriptions, I would not just as yet dismiss a different interpretation.

Auxiliary table describing all words in the inscription with Claudius
(Not part of the { cla-, cle-, cli-, clO-, clu- } group)
Etruscan Slovene English Etruscologists
laris laris: gospod, visokost - lord; - Lat:lar=(tutelary household god)="varuh, zaščitnik"; gospoduješ, blagosloviš; oprostiš; [R=D] hladiš; -- glejTudi:plaisinas: (mi.larisa.plaisinas)=straši;

-- glejTudi: aleOnas=(aleOnas.laris) = "Zapustil nas je duh/duša"; --> "laris=duša (umrlega)" vs "SeOre=duh (živega)"; -- glejTudi: (EA-p158:vel.saties);

-- glejTudi:lariS, lari, larice, lariceia, larices, laricesi, larisa, larO


Med nekaj več kot 7000 etruščanskimi napisi vsebuje okoli
1100 napisov besedico ...lar...  ,
800 napisov besedico ...larO...  ,
210 napisov besedico ...laris...  !

Ta beseda zasluži veliko več pozornosti kot ji je lahko posvetimo tukaj. Kdor želi naj si ogleda naslednjo povezavo:
...more larO
lord; ghost protector

Amomg 7000+ Etruscan inscriptions
1100 contain ...lar...  ,
800 contain ...larO...  ,
210 contain ...laris...  !

This word deserves a much closer scrutiny, however, and you may have a sneak peep at it here:

...more larO
proper name
avle življenje, obramba/o, živ, življenje - avle=aule; smrt / življenje; mrtev - glej:avileS=živiš

-- glejTudi:azil, avil, aviles, aville, avils, avilesca, avi, aule, avl...; aulez

life, alive, to live year
larisal odhajajoča duša, duša pojdi - prosta si (lari.sal)="duša šla / odšla"; [R=D]=>ladisal hladil;

-- glej:(l .precu .lari .sal.)="preko je duša šla" -- glej:(larOi .cracnei .larisal .ril .+lxxv+) = "lupina duše poči, preide po 75 letih"

-- glejTudi:lari, larisale, lariSal, larisa, larisalisa, larisaliSa, larisai

...more larO
soul in transit / on it's way proper name (eL-p88:Genitive).
clenar tisti ki je češčen/roten/zaklet ali, ki časti/roti/zaklinja; začaran; ki čisti, čistilec (duš), očiščen -- glejTudi: cl, clen; clan, clensi, clenSi, cliniiars, clenarSi, ... one who is clensed, cleared of a curse or spell; cursed or under a spell (the spelled) clenar, clinii-ar-as, clen-ar-aSi "sons"; (eL-p:83)
(-ar)=plural; (-si, -Si, -aSi)="demonstrative pronoun" (kazalni zaimek) [eL-p87]
clente "adoptive son?";
(-si, -Si)="Dative": clen-si, clin-si, clen-Si "to the son"
sval zaviti, zvalkati, mumificirati; - glej:(l)svalena, svalce (..clenar.sval.cn..)

POZOR: Etrlgs so dobili inspiracijo pri Slovanih (sval=živel), in v Sanskrtu (žvau=konj, živina - ki živi)

-- glejTudi: sval, svalas, svalce, svalcn, svalena, svaleni, svalOas

to wrap, band, to roll; to mummify;

NOTE: the Etruscologists keep getting inspired in Slavic languages Slov: (sval=živel="he lived"), and in Sanskrit: (žvau=horse, Slov: živina="live cattle" - which lives), however they always deny this linguistic relationship.

{ sval, sval-as, sval-asi, sval-th-as, saval-, saval-thas, sval-en } = "to live, alive", "alive, sibi?"; { svalas, svalasi } = "for life"; svalce = "s/he lived"; svaltha = "alive"
SuOi (šuthi), SuOina

suti, zasuti - grobnica - [O=T]:(suOi=suti)=grob - (Etrlgs:eca suthi="this is the tomb") - eL:157, ela:239, (EA:158 vel.saties)


Dugi napisi: [SuOina]="z vinom"  . . .  Šu=s/z vinom - gr:oinos=vino => čarobni napoj, pijača onstranstva; - Sanskr:suta-=pitna daritev;
si, "si bil"; svoj;

-- glejTudi: suOi, suOa, SuOic, Suti, suOina, suOanei, SuOic, SuOina, SuOienas, SuOiina, SuOil, SuOin, SuOiO, SuOiOi, SuOiti

...more SuOi
to bury, grave, tomb; a magic potion, a drink for the gods
...more SuOi
grobnica (tomb)
cEriXunce ceri/cvri + Xunce: cvrejo hunce (junce, ljudi); ceri="cvri, cvari, peči; žgi" Xunce [Ch=X=H,G,J,K]="hunce, junce (jagnje/žrtev), kunce"

-- Err:[E=V]: ceriXunce=cVriXunce (drugje našel z napako [V=E]?); "žgati glino / lonce" -- Lat:humus=zemlja; -- Lat:hominis=človek;

ceri="skale, čeri (ceri)" + velovi (Xunce); - Gr:cheir=sidro; => => ceri + gunce = v skale treskajoči morski valovi; ladje, čolni;

-- glejTudi:cvriXunce, ceri-unce; cure, qurianas, peicunas, curnal, squrias

ceri/cvri + Xunce ceri="fry, bake, burn"; Xunce="lamb, sacrificial victim" (sometimes spelled with "E" or "V" Err:[E=V]: "cvriXunce=cVriXunce" => indicative of possibility researchers were aware of the controversial inflammatory meaning) cer-=make
apac itak - SrHr:ipak; however, yet, still apa, aphe, aphes, apars, afrs "father, ancestor", "father, guardian";
atic
saniu sanjajočemu; rezultat razmisleka - razsodnost (Ang:sane); "z njima"

POZOR: Zanimivo, da so Etrlgs spet v prenešenem pomenu: (smrt=sanje, večne sanje) našli skoraj sinonim slovenskega prevoda.

-- glejTudi:saniSva, sani-va, anini

to the dreaming; revelation, produced in thoughts - sanity

NOTE:Again an interesting choice of translation - Etruscologists are obviously getting inspirations from in Etruscan times "nonexistent" Slavic (Venetic) languages, but managed to hide this fact in front of the linguists?

dead; { san-, San-, sian-, sian-Sl, san-e } = "dead, deceased, ancestor" { santi, Santi, Santi-S-tS } = "funerary priest" { saniSa, saniSva } = "dead?"; sanisva "blessed?" plural
saniSva sanje, sanjanje; sanjava; sanja

POZOR: Zanimivo, da so Etrlgs spet v prenešenem pomenu: (smrt=sanje, večne sanje) našli skoraj sinonim slovenskega prevoda.

-- glejTudi:sani-va, saniu; ania, anial, anies, anies, anei..., spaspusa, ninieS=položiš, anin...; saniSva, saniu, anini

dream, dreaming, dreamt; we are dreaming

NOTE:Again an interesting choice of translation - Etruscologists are obviously getting inspirations from in Etruscan times "nonexistent" Slavic (Venetic) languages, but managed to hide this fact in front of the linguists?

dead; { san-, San-, sian-, sian-Sl, san-e } = "dead, deceased, ancestor" { santi, Santi, Santi-S-tS } = "funerary priest" { saniSa, saniSva } = "dead?"; sanisva "blessed?" plural
Oui
cesu ko šel, ko je šel (ce.Su); ? cesarju - glej:cezeri - glej:saru=cesarju - Eng:sir - glejOrig:ceisinies -- glejTudi: saru, cese, cesu, ceSu, ces, cezeri, ceisi, ceisial, ceisinal, hasmuni; if/when he went; emperor, zar, king => caesar; sir n/a
clavtie klatite, koljete od: klatiti?; klati? (Obstaja tudi povezava s Klitemnestro! - glej:cluetie) -- glej: [ ca-05 claes ]; Etr: Klavdij = Claudius - glej:[kasDio-05-22]; -- glejTudi: cl, clauceS, clate, clan, clanies, clate, clanies; clavtieSuras, clavtieOuras; clau, claucalual, clauce; clen, clenar; cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... slaughter, stab, kill Claudius family.
clavtieSuras, clavtieOuras clavtieSuras=(clavtie.Suras) ali clavtieOuras=(clavtie.Ouras) -- glejTudi: clavtie, cl, clauceS, clate, clan, clanies, clate, clanies; clavtieSuras, clavtieOuras; clau, claucalual, clauce; clen, clenar; cliam, clin, cluO, clut,... clavtieSuras=(clavtie.Suras) or clavtieOuras=(clavtie.Ouras) n/a

Knowing how the Etruscologists arbitrarily cherry-pick Etruscan words it is hard to imagine other reason but a clever attempt to cover up the apparent similarities found in the Etruscan with Slavic (Venetic) languages. Compatible with this is their belief that Etruscan language, which survived in the form of epitaphs or texts on votive objects to deities and other spiritual beings in the world beyond, is nothing more than a collection of endless lists of names. These ideas guided them to invent elaborate grammatic structures only to glue together these names and an occasional verb "to give" or "I am [gift of]". They go out of their way to employ voice transformations in order to define different forms of words as derivatives of a common stem or root with a single meaning in lieu of identifying them as different fords (see: clan, clenar, cliniiars...). For all of their inventions there is seldom any evidence or other linguistic proof or even a hint, and all their "academic gibberish" could just as well be merely a pigment of their imagination. Based on their "reputation", one is hardly compelled to pay much attention to their claim that the word "clavtie" is actually a famous family name Claudius, since there really is nothing but a possible similarity in how the two words might sound when pronounced, to support their guess.

However, it is interesting to notice that in their eagerness to connect Etruscan and Latin the Etruscologists were actually correct in pointing out the similarity between the words "clavtie" and the famous family name Claudius! Of course they did not dare to think that the words "clavtie" and "clan" were related, but so did not the Venetologists. The fact that both the Etruscologists and Venetologists have agreed on the basic or root meaning for the stem of the word "clan", as well as on a crucial inscription containing this word, did not help in discovering this connection at all. However, I should point out that from the first time I encountered this word, namely, "clan", I immediately associated it with a very obvious meaning "stabbed" (to stab), which in Slovenian language needed no twisting to fit the Etruscan spelling. It disturbed me that Venetologists never even hinted a possibility, that "clan" may be the direct translation of the identical Slovenian word. Nevertheless, it turned out that this indeed was one of the possible meanings, which without knowing what we know now is almost impossible to believe. The following paragraphs explain these two seemingly irreconcilable choices.

Clytemnestra and "Roman History" point to Claudius

Clytemnestra about to be slaughtered It took me more than two years, and many other hints, none of which helped me to consolidate the two contradictory meanings for the above word "clan". During this period I had an engaging working encounter with an inscription on the Etruscan Mirror depicting Clytemnestra being stabbed with an "immense sword" which also failed to sound the alarm bells. It wasn't until after I read in Cassius Dio's History of Rome about a brutal Roman commander and politician, who lived roughly between 340 BC-273 BC, and whose name was Appius Claudius, who led Roman army against the Etruscans, and had decimated the troops serving under him because of their giving way before the Volsci in battle. Following is the Cassius Dio's description of what decimation in the above context meant:

[kD-05-21]: Now decimation was the following sort of process. When the soldiers had committed any grave offense the leader told them off in groups of ten, and taking one man of each ten, who had drawn the lot, he would punish him by death.
Indeed, to his own troops, he could have been nothing but a brutal murderer. According to another ancient Roman historian, Livy, "Gods made him pay for his brutality", and Roman people sentenced him to death because of it later. All we've learned about this particular Appius Claudius reinforced by the passage from Cassius Dio, about the slaughter of his own troops, seems to confirm the premise, that his name, if interpreted by the help of the Slovene language, reflected then popular Roman perception about him. Namely, in Slovene the word "clau" (klau, klav, klati) means to murder, kill, or to slaughter, to slay. Not surprisingly, this realization finally started all kinds of alarm bells! My attention now caught the first name of this person:

Latin Etruscan Slovene English
Appius apia, apias, apiasa, apices,... ubija, ubijalec, boš ubil; pijanec, boš pil killer, is (will be) killing; drunk, is (will be) drinking
Claudius clavtie, clavties, clavtieSuras, clavtieOuras, claucalual, clauce, claucesa, clauceS, ... klalec; kolješ, klal, bo/boš klal,... murderer; to stab, slaughter, slaughtered, will be slaughtering, ...

Since my realization that in ancient times hardly any word, not even names were meaningless sounds, I tested this proposition during my work with the Hittites, and indeed ancient Greeks. This very idea consistently yielded the expected results even with Romans and their Latin, which this discussion here certainly proves very well, indeed. Here is yet another inscription supporting the above reasoning, that indeed the words with the stems "cla-" can not only be interpreted as nouns, never mind meaningless names, but also as verbs:

Etruscan: z0-01:larO. avaini.clau .lautneterie
Slovnsko: Tuj gospod je moril vojake/častnike (ljudi)
English: Foreign master slaughtered (our) solders/officers (people)

up_back_button() Accepting that "clan" means slain (to slay): - though in time I found many reasons to believe the Etruscologists were right about the name Claudius, which particularly, after discovering its meaning, got my full attention, I had a long way to go, before I could consolidate the two almost diametrically opposing meanings, namely the one about which both groups of researchers agreed upon (man, member, son), and the alternative one (murder, slay,...) that had for a long time bewildered me, and for which finally rather convincing arguments started to emerge, which in turn also proved to be equally solid and convincing linguistic evidence.

Undoubtedly the Etruscan mirrors were the blessing for us all, and the one with the Etruscan spelling of Clytemnestra's (cluOumusOa) also convinced me to be more open-minded about the alternative spelling "clutmsta", which finally made me realize that the words in the group { cla-, cle-, cli-, clO-, clu- } after all may in a funny way be related, hence a closer study of these words and the pertinent inscriptions laid a rather solid foundation for this article.

It should be pointed out that the Venetologists on one side, and the Etruscologists on the other arrive at their, albeit identical findings, with almost opposing beliefs which govern their vastly different methods as well as methodologies. Their differences can be observed by looking at how they came to accept the word "clavtie" to represent the name Claudius. While there is hardly any evidence, that the Etruscologists used anything but a hint based on a possible resemblance in pronunciation of the two words, the other side remained reluctant to draw any conclusion about the suggested results, until after a numerous cross-references and consistent confirmations supported the evidence obtained by the methods not unlike those of the comparative linguistic. Furthermore, the Etruscologists vigorously oppose the use of comparative linguistics, because they believe that Etruscan language is not sufficiently related to any other known language, therefor nothing is warranting a use of such methodology.

However, the amount and quality of resulting evidence either side produced speaks volumes. The body of supporting evidence presented by the Etruscologists pails in comparison to that of the other side. Nevertheless, it was quite an exhilarating experience to find that a totally different approach they undertook from time to time yielded the same results, and that their (Etruscologists') intuition was right, especially when it also supports our views. Such is the case with our two famous names, namely Claudius and Clytemnestra, though it is highly unlikely that also the Etruscologists saw the connection between the two names. Finally, we also have here the words from the { cle-, cli- } sub-groups, which we will look at a bit closer, shortly, and which proved to be a conduit to the consolidation glue between the notorious and seemingly mutually exclusive meanings "man, member", or "son", and "to kill, murder, the murderer, or the "cracking of", or "the 'milking' of a soul".

( NOTE: We will explain //the concepts about "cracking" and about "drinking" of "souls" as if they were "eggs"//, shortly. )
The discovery of the alternative meaning of the word "clan" may on the one hand be a welcome news for the Etruscologists, since it confirms their claim about the family name Claudius. On the other, however, it may potentially be adding to their embarrassment since they rushed to name a tomb after a word appearing in the inscriptions in that tomb, not at all as the name, but rather as a simple word only sharing its the meaning with the name. In all of this it is not hard to see why so many things escaped the Etruscologists. In the mildest form we can say, because they did not see any meanings in Etruscan names, they could not have noticed that the word Clytemnestra is indeed by meaning related to the word Claudius!

Etruscan words in spiritual context

At first I could not comprehend, how was it possible, that all these different words and meanings, which apparently in real life have different "stems" could so naturally fit together after they fell into the same group, arbitrarily and purely on the basis of alphabetic order. The answers seem to have gradually emerged based on my long and exhaustive wandering between different Etruscan inscriptions, especially those enigmatic ones that appeared to be bilingual. On the one hand they read as if they were written in ancient Slovene, on the other hand they made no sense whatsoever. Such, for instance is the inscription [LLV:Es 25] known also as "alphabet tablet" found near Padova (Italy), that some consider to be Venetic rather than Etruscan, and which was extensively studied and claimed by both sides to belong into their own ancient environments. In fact there are quite a few of almost identical tablets which all belong to the same series of the famous "Atestine tablets".

Svalki (rolls)
Svalki, rolls
As it turns out for both the Veneti and the Etruscans writing had a spiritual meaning, and some inscriptions are written in mysterious ways, only the priests and priestesses could understand. In the above mentioned [Es-25] tablet the first part of the inscription is written in such a secretive manner. Individual words are highly suggestive of course viewed as a play or a game with words in Slovene language. For instance in the first three words { vir .vin .vil } the first word vir (viriti, gledati) can be translated as "see, look, view", the second word vin (ven, van, nebesa [napoj, pijača]) mean either "heaven", or "a drink, libation", and third word, where the last letter is slightly damaged and could be either [ P ] or [ L ], namely, vil where [ p | l ]   (vipy, popij), or if [P=L] then "vil" (izvil, izvij) means "to wrap, band, to roll; to mummify". Incidentally, both of these two variants are often used in Etruscan funerary texts. However, for us the latter case (vil) here is new, and indeed, represents another very typical word with a very special spiritual or sepulchral meaning. It can be seen as related to a wrapping of a soul or wrapping of a life. Namely, life of mortals is wrapped, but souls of the dead are then unwrapped or "broken out of a shell" by the Gods, as numerous inscriptions tell us.

NOTE: Some of you may be suspicious of the fact, that one would defend two opposing situations, namely one in error and the correct one with the same vigour. The fact is that letters "L" and "P" in Etruscan script are represented with the same symbol - one turned up and the other down. It is not uncommon to find letters turned incorrectly in old scripts, and this may very well had been the feature exploited by the priestesses. Since both two words, namely, "vil" and "vip / (pil)" were both almost exclusively used in spiritual and/or sepulchral settings, this may indeed had been the case!
For those who question the explanation of the second word (vin) above, here is one convincing inscription, out of a total of 47 which contain a variation of this word which to the best of my abilities I have most often found to mean a kind of a drink or a libation.

venel, venelus, veneluS, venelusi
Etruscan Slovene English Etruscologists
venel venetsko pivo; strup; (božanski napoj);
venelusi: pijaničuj, klati neumnosti;
Ven: ven/van=zunaj, nebo, nebesa

-- glejTudi:venelus, veneluS, venelusi

Venetic beer; poison / magic potion;
venelusi: to party, to play the buffoon
Ven: ven/van=out, beyond, heaven
male name

Etruscan: mi .venelus .vinucenas
Slovnsko: Venelus nas bo opijanil
English: Venelus will make us drunk

The next few words in the inscription [Es-25]: { krknkl, trtntl, mrdnml } sound like abbreviated Slovenian words with the following meanings: "when cracked dead, hard as a rock, moved only by prayer". As I said the words in this part of the inscription are only suggestive, however, the other parts we can interpret with absolute certainty, and are discussed under the topics dealing with the Venetic language. For your convenience I've included the image of this famous inscription [Es-25] bellow, so you may wish to check things out yourself.

Here our focus is on the secretive part which revealed to us the other more mysterious nature of the Etruscan language. In this light it is possible to see that the priestess could play with the words that had some mythological or religious meaning, especially if they sounded alike and when put together rimed. This also explains the answer to the original question asked at the beginning, namely, how could different words with seemingly unrelated meanings and stems fit together.

Some words, here do not belong into our { cla-, cle-, cli-,... } group, but are worth mentioning because they support our discussion about so called "spiritual encoding", or word games, priestesses used (če kliknete, lahko navedeno odprete v novem oknu: Sanskrt je umetna tvorba z umetno vzdrževano piramidno strukturo ). to create a sacred ambient of mystery and awe, when chanting. Such for instance is the word svalce, which belongs to the group of words with the same root as well as the same base meaning as the word vil (izvil, izvij) from the inscription [Es-25], which in English means "to wrap, band, to roll; to mummify", and are consistently encountered in epitaphs and other inscriptions in funeral settings. They in the Slovenian language svalki (rolls) mean exactly what you see above in the picture with wrapped adults as babies, as if they were rolls baker makes. (you may click on the next link to open it in a new window: Inscriptions with the words "sval-" [rolls] ).

The following is the promised inscription, from Padova [Es-25], which, by the way, the Etruscologists correctly classified, as a ceremonial religious text, however, as the famous Slovenian Venetologist Matej Bor proved, it was also much more than that, namely, a Venetic grammar reference tablet. As we saw in this article here, both interpretations of these tablets are extremely important for the researchers of Etruscan language. Unlike the Etruscologists, Matej Bor did not exclude nor neglect the spiritual aspect of this artifact. Indeed, I believe, he was partially successful deciphering the spiritual part at the very bottom of the tablet, but didn't comment on the very first part to which we here payed a closer attention, because I believe it hides a template or a model for creating chanting rimes.

The Atestine tablet (Es-25), etruscologists call it "the alphabet tablet"
Napisi in slovnična tabela na tablici Es-25
vir.vin.vil krknkl trtntl drdndl mrdnml prpnpl
šršnšl srsnsl krknkl kvei brbnbl grgngl
You do not have to be a linguist to see the above patterns are pronounceable and that they rime. They are good candidates for a ceremonial chant. However, their meaning is as it seems hidden away and open to a guessing game.

Ven: me go donasto foltiti omno.si i uvant žar jun S šajnatej rejtiaj
Slo: Jaz ga darujem duše se spominjajoč in ventan žar mlad ta (je) Šajnati Retiji
Eng: I offer it to Shining Rethia, remembering the soul extinguished (destroyed)

The bottom part which looks as a grid with repeating patterns of letters is actually a table of gramatic inflections.

My main reason to bring into our discussion the above Venetic inscription was to show you the chanting part : { vir-vin-vil / krkn-kl / trtn-tl / drdn-dl / mrdn-ml / prpn-pl / šršn-šl / srsn-sl / krkn-kl / kvei / brbn-bl / grgn-gl }, which linguistically at first glance has no value. Nevertheless, it helped me appreciate, how different words in stem and meaning ended up first in the same category of Etruscan inscriptions, and from there in my dictionary tables here.

up_back_button() Piti, peti, pes, ... (drink, sing, dog,...): Hidden here is the evolution of some of the words, which only became apparent when viewed in the context in which Etruscans used them in their sepulchral and otherwise spiritual environments. Is it a coincidence, that in Slavic languages the words "piti" (to drink), "peti" (to sing), "pes" (to sing), and even "poesti" (to eat up) all sound alike? After all that I've learned here, I really do not think so!

One who drinks (alcohol beverages) sings, the dogs sing, eating is a kind of drinking. In Sanskrit "pi, pita", and in Greek "pi, pino" is (to drink), but not in Greek nor in Sanskrit the other words particularly "sing, dog" are not similar, though Latin word for "a wolf" (lupus), can be derived from Venetic or Slovene word for "a dog" (pes, pus) barking at the moon (luna) - "lunin-pes".

Evidently, in the Venetic language words evolved gradually from older known words with similar or related meanings and the above words clearly show this pattern, which at the same time also suggests that Venetic and Slavic languages have a common base. This is reflected in similar semantics and spelling that survived to this day. All the above is indicative of older languages, and suggests an apparently formidable age of Venetic language, which supports my claim, that origins of modern Slavic languages are older than Greek, Latin and most certainly also Sanskrit, which we have discovered in many occasions is an artificial language created by amalgamation of Venetic and other for us hard to identify languages (you may click on the next link to open it in a new window: Sanskrit is an artificial form with artificially maintained pyramid structure ).
If you study the words and the inscriptions from the entire class to which we refer as the { cla-, cle-, cli-, clO-, clu- } group, you will notice their meanings are very likely to be used in spiritual setting, indeed, they were found in texts in sepulchral environments. And we have not even touched the glue words like clen..., clin... which translate as "to swear, chant, to spell", and "to lift a spell" or "absolution". Hence it is quite obvious that the priests found it rather natural to play word games with these words which bore meaning such as death, crack, kill, spell, swear, chant, clear of bad spirits,.... Beside for the priests important words from sub-group "clen..., clin..." which as you know mean "to swear, chant, to spell", and "to lift a spell" or absolution, there is yet another very important word in this context, and in fact requires additional explanation of Etruscan beliefs and mythology. This word as we will discover shortly is the Etruscan word for drinking. However, before we look at it closer, explanation of "clen..., clin..." sub-group is in order.

Because of the importance the word drinking plays in this article, for your convenience I provide an easy way for you to peek ahead and also return and continue reading the remaining few paragraphs here. Hence you can click to [(  peek ahead... ])

Checking out the table under the title "The words { cla..., cle..., cli... } explained" above, you will notice that in either subgroup "clen..." or "clin..." prevail such meanings as "to swear, to chant, spell", and "to lift a spell". I would like you to concentrate on the later of the two. Indeed, very close to this meaning are: "to cleanse a soul", or "to wash away the sins" and "the absolution". It is interesting to know that another meaning for word "clin" (klin) is "a chisel-shaped peg", and that there is a saying in Slovene language "with a peg you knock out a peg" (klin se izbije s klinom). All these words deal with getting rid of some nuisance or dirt, either mental or physical. Is it a coincidence that English word for "cleaning" sounds exactly like the Etruscan word "clin"? Again, I do not think so! There are quiet a few words that English got from Etruscans! (But since we are not talking about English language here, I have to mention that I had elaborated on this in other places.)

It is important though, that with the help of the above analysis you see the reasoning behind drawing parallels between the Etruscan word "clin" and the Slovene word "klet, zaklinjanti, kletev, klin". In Etruscan language the root meaning is "to swear, to chant; to shout", but in Etruscan spiritual context the meaning is "to clean, to get rid of, to clear", all the meanings which with the help of above explanations can also be found in mentioned Slovene words "klet, zaklinjanti, kletev, klin". Equally important is the fact that the two meanings defined for two different contexts are not conveniently or arbitrarily chosen, but that they in fact are semantically related, for which we have proof in Slovene language, where indeed the words klet, zaklinjanti, kletev, klin, ...) directly or inherently mean the same as the Etruscan word "clin".

Hence, it is now easy to see, that Etruscan priests and priestesses could play with the words from our group { cla-, cle-, cli-, clO-, clu- } because of the meanings these words provided in the spiritual context, which indeed, in real life are all different words, with different meanings, and of different stems, yet in ancient chanting rimes found in the inscriptions they come together and still make perfect sense. Also, one has to take into consideration, that in those days evolving "Etruscan community" was shaped by accepting rich migrants, i.e. foreign speakers, indeed craftsmen and also scribes who must have had hard time using the right native words, never mind the twisted use of some words in spiritual context, which further complicates the decipherment of a significant number of Etruscan texts. But let's return to our group of Etruscan words { cla-, cle-, cli-,... }, for which I would like to show a much broader semantic base than what the Etruscologists believe.

up_back_button() How did Etruscollogists arrived at their "demonstrative pronoun" theory: My research of the words from the above { cla-, cle-, cli-,... } group, was motivated when the Etruscologists pointed to it with their "Theory of Demonstrative pronoun" to which they arrived also with the help of the words in this group.
(I have mentioned a bit more about the alleged "Theory of Demonstrative pronoun" above under the heading: The phantom Etruscan grammar Etruscologists invented rests on the words "clan" and "larOalisa".)
Here, I particularly wish to claim, that it is highly unlikely that the words "clan" and "cliniiaras" are one and the same word, namely, "a son" and "to the sons", but rather two linguistically entirely unrelated words! To back this up, regardless of our discussion above, we have shown here 110 different potential grammatic forms of the words with the pertinent controversial stems (totally ignored by the Etruscologists), and all the 256 inscriptions, with these words in them. But let's not forget that in some 7000+ inscription there is only one, that uses such a construct once, namely:

The only inscription with the controversial "cliniiaras"
Word Inscription
cliniiaras tq-09: itun .turuce .venel .atelinas .tinas .cliniiaras ; [Orig]
Slovensko: (1) "To je darilo za v Had očetu našemu Tiniji, da 'dušo' jarov reši / odvrne bolečine"; (2) "To je darilo za v Had očetu našemu Tiniji reasenskemu" (clinii+a+ras="pripadnikom rasenov")
English: This is the gift for Tinia in the Had, to save (clear) the soul of wickedness and pain
Etrlgs: (Venel Atelina dedicated this to the sons of Tinia [Diskouroi: Castor, Pollux]
tle-156, [eL-p143/text #20]

Etruscologists believe that the Etruscan word for "son" in Etruscan language can be found with different spellings of its root or stem "cla-". The reason is a grammatic one, namely so called voice transformation, which takes place when "clan" dative (plural) form is formed. We can see that letter "A" becomes either "E" or "I" in " clenaraSi" and "cliniiaras" which, according to them, both are used in the same way and also mean the same thing, namely "to the sons".

I would not object so much to their proposition, had they been honest with us, and told us how they arrived at their theory, instead of inventing a ridiculous grammatic explanation for it. The fact is that one can dissect the word "cliniiaras" in three parts as "clinii + a + ras", which reveals a mix of Greek/Latin and Slavic grammtic patterns. Namely, (1) a usual Greek/Latin plural ending "-ii" for a possibly misspelled word man, member, or son, and (2) an old Slavic use of preposition shown in the dissected word as "+ a +" designating a case i.e.: dative use of the last part, (3) "ras" which is short for "rasa" (Rasens) which is how the Etruscans called themselves, hence putting all the three together: (1) {men, members or children} + (2) {(preposition) of} + (3) {Etruscans}. Of course due to poor understanding of the concepts of declination it is easy to confuse a layman in cases like this one, to which part of the word to apply the preposition, and hence not unlike the one the Etruscologists came up with, a kinds of ridiculous interpretations are possible. You can check a bit more about this in a new window by clicking on: Etruscan grammar the Etruscologists built around the word clan.

I guess, my claim here is that the Etruscologists use Slavic languages as a helping aid to decipher the meaning of certain Etruscan words and grammatic patterns, and then invent artificial grammar to support their "steal" from the future. Indeed, they venture about a 1000 years into the future, to learn how a particular pattern was used in the middle ages by then arriving Slavs, in order to interpret the Etruscan scripts. Of course, this they will not admit! However, how else could they have been so sure about their solution obtained by a surgical strike into some odd 8000 Etruscan inscriptions, picking out a single one, which miraculously just happened to be the correct one, containing just a pattern they needed, namely, "cliniiaras" and then based on it build the entire grammar of the Etruscan language, and at the same time missed to explain over a 110 siblings of this "pivotal" word.

Finally we arrived at the promised topics related to the word drinking which was a very important clue to the overall understanding of Etruscan mythological beliefs, which unlocked the path to the missing alternative interpretations of the word "clan" and its "siblings". Without understanding these mythological beliefs the deciphering of many inscriptions containing words from the group "cla-, cle-, ..." would be next to impossible.

 

Breastfeeding, cracking souls and drinking them up


You may click here to return, if you are peaking ahead   ...return from peek ahead      
I am very happy, that the Etruscans left behind a sufficient body of evidence that prevented even, as superficial and shallow research as that of the Etruscologists under the guidance of the compromised or incompetent historians and linguists traditionalists, to totally misinterpret the historical and linguistic facts. This realization was a welcome injection of confidence into the research ambient which by each successful discovery on my side grew increasingly more polluted by a hostile perception of the other side. It was refreshing to feel, even if just for a moment, that also most of the Etruscologists after all are doing their job to the best of their abilities and with as much good and honest intentions as anybody else.

Goddess breast/feeds a grownup Hercules Indeed, I am talking about the word "clan" and the Etruscan mirror where this word, along with the inscription in which it appeared survived the first relentless scrutiny on all sides. This mirror seems, to have inspired all the researchers on either side equally. It turned out it had a much bigger significance than merely inspiring the research of the Etruscan language. It looks as though, the apparent clarity of the message seen on the image at the back of the mirror, must have encouraged the researchers, a bit too early, into a conclusion that the inscription conveys the same "banal" message, whereby almost everybody neglected to see the importance of the message itself, while worrying about unimportant details of the individual words in the inscription. It is true there can be no dispute about the obvious things, like the identities of the protagonists on the image, similarly I believe it is not terribly important whether "Juno is feeding her son", or "a Goddess feeds a man". In the light of what was missed, these two seemingly different versions of interpretations unjustly attracted so much attention. A much more interesting thing would be to view the inscription in a spiritual or religious context and in the spirit of those times, in which case we should consider the possibility that the language had been tweaked by the priestess to convey ether message simultaneously. Though I believe the two different interpretations of this inscription, clearly reveal the divisions and particularly the motifs behind the Etruscologists to counter the research of the Venetologists, for us here it is not important whether the word "clan" either means "the son" or "a man", nor is important whether one thinks the breast-feeding woman is "Juno" or merely "a Goddess". In this context it is also easy to see that the eye catching bearded man may be as significant as the fact that one is being breast-fed. The Hercules figure, on the other hand represents a mortally injured adult who is drinking a "potion of life" from the breasts of the Goddess. Obviously, for the Etruscans the significance of breastfeeding represents the miracle of both the life and the death, which clearly is in the hands of their Gods who poses the powers to either give the life to mortals or take it away from them.

Mirror: Juno breast-feeding Hercule
Beseda Napis
clan
Click to enlarge (Kliknite za povečano)
z2-02: eca .sren .tva .iXnac .hercle .unial .clan .Ora .sce
Slovene: Eto, zrenje tvoje njih: potem, ko Herkul se je utrudil, boginjo človek sesa.   (Matej Bor)
English: Here you see the two: after Hercules got tired, the goddess offered him her milk.
Etruscologists: This image shows how Hercule, the son of Uni, sucked (milk)

Here we are not concerned with the linguistic analysis of the above inscription, which I have dealt with a bit more in the second part of this article, and you can peak in by clicking the following link: ( Etruscologists' linguistic efforts are rather superficial ). Instead we use this inscription in order to open up Etruscan spiritual world, understanding of which, will help help us discover otherwise hidden meanings of the words we are investigating here. In this inscription we first encounter a particularly important aspect of Etruscan beliefs, namely, that which marks the beginning as well as the end of life with some kind of drinking in this case the breast-feeding.

Soul before birth and after death is caught in an egg
Etruscan egg ...
In the second [ Part II. (Inscriptions) ], under the title "Vibenna is not a name; Etruscan Gods drink life from dying", I have briefly described that some Etruscan inscriptions convey a belief that the life of the dying becomes a beverage for the Etruscan Gods, and that they end up drinking the life of a dying mortal out of their soul which they crack open like an egg. You can check it out in another window by clicking: ( Etruscan Gods drink life from dying ). There are many Etruscan sculptures, that reveal these ancient mysteries. For instance an egg shape with inscription on it.

Traces of the belief that a soul was like an egg, from which life springs and returns at death could be traced also to Veneti. It is interesting that already Matey Bor bumped into it, however, he did not notice, that Venetic inscriptions [V-p:278,9] on the egg shaped stones, which he correctly translated as describing intoxicating joys of drinking, were actually of a spiritual nature.

For a Slavic speaker the fact that Matey Bor translates the inscription on one egg shaped stone as an event associated with drinking, and the other as a singing, is not at all alarming, since in all Slavic languages piti means drinking and peti means singing, which as we have already explained above is yet another indication that Venetic a predecessor of Slavic languages is indeed a prehistoric language. You may recall, we have already been acquainted by this very interesting similarities both in form and semantics which appear in some ancient languages and indeed in Venetic, Slavic as well as Etruscan. For those of you who forgot, let me remind you there is a paragraph in this article called "Piti, peti, pes, ... (drink, sing, dog,...)". Following are the Venetic inscriptions we just discussed:

Venetic inscriptions on egg shaped stones   [V-p:278,9]
Etruscan (#1): ho .stiha .bo .sto .u peo
Slovnsko: Bor: Ko utihne, tedaj sto jih zapoje
New: Ga tišina (pogoltne), ko ga posrkajo (popijejo)
English: Bor: When silence comes, hundred sing
New: Silence overcomes him, when he is finished (drank, drained out)
Etruscan (#2): pil .potei .ku .pri .konioi
Slovnsko: Bor: Plamen poti, ko pri koncu je
New: Pil je potem, ko je konec
English: Bor: The flame of life's path, when at the end
New: He drank, when end was reached
Soul before birth and after death is caught in an egg

It is no coincidence that intoxication in ancient times was viewed as a mystical property obtained from spirits caught a drink which ultimately are released in the mind of a drinker.

At this point I would like to point out, that in all Slavic languages, the word "duh" means both spirit, mind and mind. One may argue that this could have been a translation of the non-Slavic "spirit", however, not only is Slavic meaning mind much more specific, the fact that these meanings are found in all Slavic languages clearly indicates an older common i.e. Venetic origin.
The fact that the word spirit means "pure alcohol" is the evidence of thse old beliefs. I believe that Greek God Dionysus (Διώνυσος) or Roman Liber, which by the way liberates in a drink caught spirits, have been trivialized by the Christianity which inherited some of these old ideas, but interpreted a soul or a spirit in a much less human manner. Typically, a Christian belief is that when a mortal is being "possessed" by a spirit, it is ultimately a bad thing, and one is often subjected to a great pain and suffering when a foreign spirit manifestation is observed in the possessed, subsequently sacred rituals have to be performed upon such an "unfortunate" person by the clergymen in order to cleanse him/her of the evil thing.

Click to enlarge (Tinia holding Junona's breast) The drinking in spiritual sense is not only for the Gods to enjoy, it works for mortals too. On special occasions, such as the one depicted on the above mentioned mirror, Gods can revive a dying man, as well as after birth all the mortals receive such a drink in a more human form, which since the times immemorial was seen as a divine source of life. Clearly, we see that drinking, i.e. breast-feeding and hence, breasts themselves have a deep spiritual connotation, associated with both living and dying or life and death! Indeed, this is the remnant of a very old religious tradition predating the Etruscans but is on the other hand a hallmark of Venetic mythology, see for example shining Rejtija [Es-25], which is the most famous Venetic Goddess, though other ones like "Zhiva" (Živa) and "Zemlja" fall into the same category, which all have their origins in the famous Neolithic Earth Mother, Cybele, Magna Mater or "Great Mother", just like Gaia and Rhea.

There is a beautiful statue of Tinia holding Juno's breast, and also urns with the same motive, depicting Etruscan couples, can be found. You can see on the image here, how skilfully an Etruscan artist captured a tender moment, convincing us of the godlike excitement in this truly beautiful act of touching the ultimate source of life. The point to make here is, that breasts, and particularly the milk and drinking clearly represent Etruscan mythological motive, and unlike a number of morally overzealous pundits are explaining to us, particularly when comparing Etruscan art with that of ancient Greece or Rome, a more free and natural understanding of procreation is not to be seen, as some Etruscan social deformity, perversion, or an obsession with sexual life, which as we will see, Etruscans also view much more as a miracle of life, rather than an act of something shameful to be hidden away in the darkness or privacy. It is almost as if for Etruscans it is more shameful, and fearful to be deprived of the freedoms and the ability to perform these pleasures of life. Moreover, Etruscans believe that gods can use these "devices" to take, give, or return life from the living and the dying.

The Etruscologists did an exemplary job collecting and presenting the Etruscan artifacts. The importance of this task is not immediately noticeable to a linguist, whose immediate and main interest are the objects with inscriptions on them. However, there comes a time, when inscriptions become silent and additional stimulus is needed to keep them talking. Help comes in the form of visual and other clues. For instance this happened to me, when I found over 720 inscriptions which contained a hint that they included a form of a word which could, if Etruscan were related to Venetic i.e. Slavic language, easily be interpreted to mean any kind of drinking activities or dealing with drinks such as milk, beverages, libations, etc. Though today we know, that the idea depicted on the mirror containing "Juno breastfeeding a grownup man" is a part of an important Etruscan mythological belief "relating life, death and drinking", only seeing the image on that mirror, would not be sufficient to confirm or deny the hint that those words and the 720 inscriptions indeed are about drinking. Other clues were needed, and they did emerge over time. One such clue is found in Homer's Iliad, where he describes the cremation of those who died in battle. Exactly the same rites were described on the Hittite clay tablets, and the funeral rites in both cases included pouring beer and wine over a funeral pile before collecting the ashes.

Latter I also discovered that drinking, milk and funeral rites are related in ancient India, namely in Sanskrit we find the word "agnihotra", which clearly shows the connection between the funeral pile, the god of fire, and a daily sacrifice of milk. This word is assembled from the word agny which is the Venetic word for fire and the Sanskrit word hotri which means priest, the Venetic word agny here in Sanskrit means God Fire or God Agny However, as the Sanskrit dictionary tells us, the complete meaning of the so assembled word is fire-sacrifice - daily offering of milk.

Sanskrit Slovene English
agnihotra Žrtvovanje v ognju; dnevno darovanje mleka
(hotri=žrtvovalec, svečenik)
fire-sacrifice; daily offering of milk

We are all familiar with the famous statue of Romulus and Remus under the she-wolf. However, I seriously doubt, that anyone thinks of it as a symbol of drinking, the way it is suggested here. I believe this motive is also spiritually inspired For ancient inhabitants of Etruria and Rome, however I believe, its meaning was much closer to the spiritual one described here, than that of a parent who just happens to be a "caring" beast, albeit sent by the Gods. In the light of this article, we may say it projects an image of magic powers not many possess precisely because few dare to challenge either nature or Gods. The message on the mirror with Juno revitalizing Hercules is very much in line with the very same idea. Of course, during the course of many years, I've worked on many inscriptions, which I did not doubt at all, were talking about drinks, drinking and libations in a rather unusual way. However, nothing can be compared to visual confirmation of an idea, particularly if it defies the reality, and deals with things that are "normally" not considered true in nature. Etruscan art is full of such images.

Why would urn have breasts on it? (Zakaj žara z dojkami?) There for instance exists an Etruscan urn, from which under its "belly" hang rows of breasts as if they were waiting for a bunch of piglets to come sucking. Indeed, the Etruscans did not think of piglets, who would feed on the contents of the urn, but the Gods. It took a lot of convincing on the part of "ancient spirits" hidden in history books and ancient artifacts, before my belief that the inscriptions truly are about drinks and drinking became my knowledge. In the next paragraph you will find the break down of all the inscriptions that contain words that in one or another way could be related to drinks and drinking:

Drinking (introducing inscriptions)

Numerical break down of all inscriptions talking about drink and drinking
70muluvanica
137Oania
205pe...
53pei..., pie...
262vipi...
727TOTAL

As you have seen above, so far I was able to identify in total 727 Etruscan inscriptions talking about drinking. You should have also noticed that there are quite a few words that directly or indirectly mean { to drink, a drink, ... }. Relevant inscriptions are collected in more than a single place so for instance there is a table that focuses on the word "mulvanica" with stem "mulu-", that means to pray, and mulvanica translates as a libation, or a "ceremonial drink", and even a "honey brandy" (medica). All words with stems { mulu-, Oan-, pei-, pi-, vipi- } deserve to be discussed on its own and have their own collections of pertinent inscriptions. You may find these words in different categories in tables on relevant pages in different articles, in the menu on the left listed under the topic "Etruscans::Language::Inscriptions".

The following are a few inscriptions containing words from the category pi-, vipi-, which include messages related to drinking. Some are known to us from the late Slovenian Venetologist Matej Bor, others I discovered about a year before I realized they are a part of the missing link leading to a bigger picture and better understanding of Etruscan mythology which in turn led to new decipherment of a significant number of words as well as new inscriptions.

Summary

After this summary, you will find the inscriptions which include texts about drinking, you may wish to skip over there. Otherwise, you may wish to check out the second part of this article, since we have arrived at the end of the first.

This concludes the initial discussions of themes that help us better understand how it was possible that we interpret our main class of words with the apparently unrelated stems formed from the "our famous" letter combinations { cla-, cle-, cli-, clO-, clu- } as a related group. Of course you may now want to study the inscriptions from the individual subgroups (cla-, cle-, cli-, clO-, clu-), collected in a table residing in a different file, see the menu on the left "Man/Swear/Clean Part II. (cl-)" to get there or click on: Part II (Inscriptions), to open the page in a new window.

End of first part.


 

Inscriptions from group pi-, vipi-

 

To drink pi-, vipi-
Word Inscription
apiasa cp0-11:Oania .anainei .apiasa   --     (apiasa=opiteža in Slovene means: "the drunk (Genitive)")
Slovensko: Božji napoj uspava piječega.
English: Magic potion is a lullaby for one who drinks.
apices cp0-14:O .cipirunia .apices   --     (apices="opiti češ" in Slovene means: "you'll get drunk s.o.")
Slovensko: Oven cipico opijaniš / napičiš.
English: Ram you'll get a prostitute drunk [under].
apita tu-06:Oi .apita   --     (apita=opita in Slovene means: "she is drunk")
Slovensko: Hej pijana
English: Hey, drunken one.
apunial
petvi
cp1-02:au .petvi .au .apunial
Slovensko: (1) Življenje poje življenje polni. (2) Po smrti se duša/čaša popije.
English: [1] Life sings, life fills up. [2] After death, the cup [the soul] is emptied.
cusinas v1-04:Oanas .cusinas   --     (cusinas="cusi nas" in Slovene means: "taste us")
Slovensko: Boginja poizkusi nas [čarobnega napoja pijače, žrtvenega vina]
English: Goddess, taste us (magic potion, libation)
fasti
Etruscan Slovene English Etruscologists
fasti obedovati, gostiti se (fašta=banket [Eng:banquet]), gostija; post, postiti (se); -- glejTudi: fasOi, fastial have a party, banquet; to fast n/a
fasti cp0-23:fasti .tlesnei .clatia .umranasa   --     (fasti="faštati" in Slovene dialect means: "to party, banquet")
Slovensko: V pijančevanju (vrgel) tlesknil morilec-duš umirajočega
English: Feasting (partying) the cracker of the souls [murderer] smashed the soul
Oana, Oania
Etruscan Slovene English Etruscologists
Oana Ana; odrešenice, boginje / boga; ovna; OanXvil! - glej:Oa; Oan="eden, eno; oven, [O=T] Tinij" žganja, nebešlega napoja - pijače; sveta žival - oven, boginja, bog, gospa božja

- glej:(ceisi.Oana)="(1) Ceusu=Zeusu bogu, (2) Zeusu nebeškega napoja", (heiri.Oana)="(1) Heri gospej božji, (2) Heri gospej božji nebeškega napoja" - glej: EC-p275 "Boginja (prsi) anO naslikana nasproti Xarunu"=an[rO]=Oana od-anina="ki legeži / ležečega" - (vsebina duše, ki jo pijejo bogovi)";

-- glejTudi: OanaXvilus, Oania

Goddess, Ana, savior; magic potion, brandy; sacrificial animal, ram { thana, thania } female name, "Fine, Gracious"
Oania Boginje, bogovi; OanXvila; božanskega napoja, pijača - Gr:oinos=vino; od-aninija="tistega ki je legel (vsebina duše, ki jo pijejo bogovi)"; - glej: Oina, OineOi=vrč

-- glejTudi: OanaXvilus, Oana, OaniaS

Genitive form of: Goddess, Ana, savior; magic potion, brandy; sacrificial animal, ram { thana, thania } female name, "Fine, Gracious"
Oa (Oana) cp0-02:Oa .velsi .tutnasa .trepuniaS .Sec
Slovensko: Pijače veliki dudati potrebuješ, ko si žejen
English: Magic potion highness you need to suck, when thirsty.
Oana cp0-02:Oana .tiscusnei
Slovensko: (1) Stisni / prešaj vino. (2)poizkusi pijače.
English: [1] Press some vines. [2] Try out the libation.
Oana
vipisa
cp0-14:Oana .cupsnei .vipisa
Slovensko: Boginja popije iz skodelice.
English: Goddess drank from a cup.
Oania v1-04:Oania .vuvsia
Slovensko: Vzami / popij sijočega napoja (žrtvene pijače)
English: Raise the shining potion (libation)
Oania v1-06:Oania .lucini .SuOina
Slovensko: (1) Pijače lokni iz vrča. (2) Napoja zalučaj v gomilo (sutino).
English: [1] Take the drink from the mug. [2] Throw the libation on a pile.
Oania v6-02:Oania .aXnei .latinisa   --     ; [ Ig-Err: latinisa="za .tinisa" ]
Slovensko: Nebeške pijače ognju za Latinca (za Tinija).
English: Magic potion on fire for the Latin [for Tinia].
Oania cp0-02:Oania .capnei .helesa
Slovensko: Pijače nakapljaj (nalij) Grk.
English: Greek pour some drink.
Oina ca-08: mi .squrias .Oina .mlaX .mlakas
Slovensko: Podžgi me z lahkim ojnom (Gr:oino=vino; ojn=pijača)
English: Fire me up with some magic potion.
pe
Etruscan Slovene English Etruscologists
pe pije, pijejo; poje, pojejo; poje, pojedo; prepeva, prepevajo - glejTudi:petr... -- glejTudi: pe..., pi, api... drink; sing; eat, eat up;

(IMPORTANT: in all Slavic languages these words are very similar and indeed are sound alikes, and of course they have the same meanings as here. This is a very significant fact and is likely a proof of great antiquity of the predecessor to Slavic languages, indeed the Veneti language.)

n/a
pe (ape) ca-08: cena .kalat .urus .B .ape .naS .c .eme .cu .hetie ;[Ig:ZvNČ-p21]
Slovensko: [Bor]: Mazati kaljati Rasensko bi bilo, če pije naš z njim, ki je Hetit, žali Rasene.
English: [Bor]: Anyone who drinks with him who is Hittite, offends the Rasenes.
petvi
apunial
cp1-02:au .petvi .au .apunial
Slovensko: (1) Življenje poje življenje polni. (2) Po smrti se duša/čaša popije.
English: [1] Life sings, life fills up. [2] After death, the cup [the soul] is emptied.
pi
Etruscan Slovene English Etruscologists
pi piti, pij, pil - Sanskrit:"pi, pita"(drink), Gr:"pi, pino" (to drink); -- glejTudi: vipi, piana, pianae, apita to drink - in all Slavic lang. "pi" is drink, - also in Sanskrit:"pi, pita"(drink), Gr:"pi, pino" (to drink) pian, piana, piane, apita / (opita) = "inoxicated, drunk"; {pi, -pi, pul} "at, in, for, by, through, with"
mi.pi ca-03 mini .muluvanice .venalia .s .lapinaS .e .n .mipi .capi .n[unar?]
Slovensko: (1) Nalij mi medice s peno in ne popij niti kapljice; (2) Meni medice, nato me pa daj po kapljicah
English: (1) Pour in magic potion with froth, but don't drink a drop. (2) To me "honey-brandy", but finish me drop by drop (slowly)
mi.pi
Click to enlarge (Kliknite za povečano)
v2-03:ei .mipi .kapi .mi .nun .ar .avequs .mi
Slovensko: Jej in pi mi po kapljicah, da mi na veke pijan ne zatežiš
English: Eat and drink drop by drop, so you won't get drunk for ever
tapiianes, ( ta. pi .i .anes )
Etruscan Slovene English Etruscologists
piianes
tapiianes
tapiianes="ta.pi.i.anes]="popij in položi (anini)"; pijanec, popivaj; -- glejTudi: pianae, paianiieS, tapiianes drink up and lay to sleep n/a
piana v2-03:mini .muluvanice .piana .veleOnice
Slovensko: "Meni božanskega napoja pijana 'velikanka'."
English: To me magic potion intoxicated great lady.
pianaS z1-01:mi .pianaS .plenianaS
Slovensko: Nas je pijan ropal.
English: The drunk has plundered us.
piianes
tapiianes
ca-00 (1):mi .ma .tapiianes ;[Ig: ta .pi .i .anes]
ca-00 (2):mi .mata .piianes ; [Ig:ma.tapiianes = mata.piianes]
Slovensko: (1) Me kar popij in položi v večno spanje (anec, anini = spanje).
(2) Popij mi očeta in ga položi spat.
English: (1) Finish (drink) me up, and lay me to sleep.
(2) Finish (drink) up my father, and lay him to sleep.

tle-015
pinies tq-01: pinies .laris .larOal .apunalc .a[v]ils .+xix+
Slovensko: Popij gospod izstopajočo (izdihnjeno) dušo ki je napolnila in ovila 29 let.
English: Drink up lord the departing soul, who filled and wrapped up 29 years.
pinies tq-01: pinies .vel .l[ar]al .apunal .Oan[Xvilu]s .clan .avils .+xxx+
Slovensko: Popij gospod izstopajočo (izdihnjeno) dušo vlita, ki ti je o bogu vseh bogov, ko je človek ovil 30 let.
English: Drink up highness the departing soul, which filled your glass, the god of all gods, whem the man has wrapped up 30 years
piOes v1-01:mi .piOes .termunas
Slovensko: Mi (me) piješ zadnjega
English: You drink (me) last (at the end)
pitilnia ca-00:mi .pitilnia
Slovensko: (1) Me pije; (2) Mi popiva; (3) Mi prepeva
English: (1) He is drinking (me); (2) He sings
pitiui cp1-05:larOi .cai .pitiui .titieS  --     (pitiui="pitju" in Slovene means: "to the drinking")
Slovensko: Gospodar duš, kaj k pitju (pijanca) kličeš?
English: Master of souls, why are you calling to drinking [a drinker]?
piuti cp0-06:Oana .piuti .purunisa
Slovensko: Boginja pije ti porivača.
English: The Goddess drinks your pusher.
pupus cp0-03:veiani .pupus   --     (pupus=popieš in Slovene means: "you drink up")
Slovensko: Onemogle ovenele popiješ / pumpaš.
English: The exhausted you drink /pump up.
sce
Etruscan Slovene English Etruscologists
sce sesa (sesati); ščuvati -- glejTudi: scesctna, scetui, scetusa, sceva suck; breastfeed { sceva, skaiva } "left-handed, treacherous"; - Latin:{scaeva="left-handed, awkward"}
sce v6-02:Oana .pesnei .sce .u .asa   --     [ Ig-Err: scetusa="sce .u .asa" ]
Slovensko: (1) Boginja ščuva pse v Acteona. (2) Boginja psom dojilkam.
English:
venel, venelusi
Etruscan Slovene English Etruscologists
venel venetsko/(etruscansko) pivo, napoj/strup (venum); "božanski napoj" - ven=podzemlje (-el=genitive/dative) / van=nebesa; onstranstvo, podzemlje (Had); posmrtni dar; - glej:(puniie.venala)="čarobnega napoja napolni" -- glej:eL-p143; -- glejTudi: venels, venel, venelus, veneluS, venelusi, veneluSi, venelusl; venelies, venala, venalia venetic drink, beer; magic potion, libation; poison male name
venelusi pijaničuj, klati neumnosti; - glej:venel="venetsko pivo, strup (venum)";

-- glejTudi: veneluSi, venels, venel, venelus, veneluS, venelusl; venelies, venala, venalia

"you party, drink, get drunk" venel="male name"
veneluS v4-02:mi .veneluS .repusiunaS
Slovensko: "mi napoja/pijače/žganja še enkrat naliješ."
English: Refill my magic potion.
venelusi v2-03:mi .venelusi .haOilnasi .mulu
Slovensko: Popij napoja in k našemu silnemu moli
English: Drink the magic potion and to the al mighti pray
vi (vipi) cp1-05:au .vi .vercn
Slovensko: Življenje popije/izrabi vojaka.
English: Life drinks up a soldier.
vi (vipi) cp1-05:au .vi .vercna .ceisial
Slovensko: (1) Življenje popije vrč cesarjev. (2) Življenje pobije cesarjeve vojake.
English: [1]. Life drinks emperor's mug [2]. Life kills emperor's soldiers.
vinucenas v1-01:mi .venelus .vinucenas
Slovensko: Venelus nas bo opijanil
English: Venelus will get us intoxicated
vipi
Etruscan Slovene English Etruscologists
vipi popij, popije; potroši, zapravi; žaluje, joka; [P=B] - pobije - glejTudi:vipinanas (vipi.na.nas="joka na nas"; popilo je - mitološko:(duše popije) --> pobralo je - glej:(arnO.vipi.Sinu)="Zgodaj je pobralo sina"

-- glejTudi: vi, vipia, vipie, vipies, vipiien, vipina, vipinal, vipinanas, vipinas, vipinei, vipinies, vipiOenes, vipisa, vipiu, vipleS, vipli, vipuzeS

drink up; spend; morurn, cry { vipina, vipine, vipinas, vipiena, vipienna } = family name (Vibenna)
vipi tq-06:clapiOi .vipi .O; [Ig:clapiOi=cla.piOi]
Slovensko: Pijani klalec (v mitološkem smislu) popij Oano (božanski napoj?) [O=Oina=vina, Oana...?]
English: Drunken murderer (in mztological context) drink the libation [O=Oina=wine, Oana...?]
vipi cp0-06:arnO .vipi .veluS
Slovensko: Zgodaj popije bogataša / potroši Bogastvo.
English: Early drinks up the rich man / spends the fortune.
vipi cp1-08:vipi .velimu .naS
Slovensko: Popij našega velijo.
English: Drink up our highness.
vipia v6-02:vipia .aXinana .anFareS
Slovensko: Popil/izlil zažganega iz amfore (žare)
English: Drank up / poured the burned from the urn.
vipia z0-03:vipia .karmuniS
Slovensko: Popil kar je zamešal (s strlo umoril).
English: Drank what he mixed [killed with lightening].
vipinanas tu-01: vipinan[a]s .SeOre .velOur[u]s .meclasial .OanXvilu[s] .avils .cis .cealXs
Slovensko: Pijana duša veličanstva me je umorila (zaklala) Bogu onstranstva življenje (podarila)
English: Drunken soul, highness murdered me, and offered my life to the god of the underworld.
vipinei
pvinei
v6-02:Oana .pvinei .lavcinasa .atainal; [Err:pvinei=vipinei]
Slovensko: "(1) S pijačo svobodnežuu našemu postreži. (2) Boginja popij našega svobodneža"
English: [1] Serve drink to our freeman. [2] Goddess drink up our freeman.
vipinei cp0-16:Oana .vipinei .ranazunia .creicesa
Slovensko: (1) Božjega napoja popij ranjeni bolnik. (2) Boginja popije zgodaj izlito (ranjeneo) počeno dušo.
English: Goddess drinks up early spilled and cracked soul.
vipisa
Oana
cp0-14:Oana .cupsnei .vipisa
Slovensko: Boginja popije iz skodelice.
English: Goddess drank from a cup.
vipiS cp1-05:arnO .vipiS .vercnaS
Slovensko: (1) Zgodaj izpiješ iz vrča/kozareca. ---?; (2) Zgodaj pobije vojake.
English: [1]. You have early emptied your glass [2]. Early were soldiers killed.
vipiS cp1-05:larO .vipiS .vercna .setreS
Slovensko: Dušo popiješ vrš razbiješ (streš).
English: Soul you drink, mug you smash [crack].
piesi
Click to enlarge (Kliknite za povečano)
nestors-cup: ne(c|s)tO(r)Os . [ ] .eupO(t)[On] .pOteriO[n] .hOs(d|r)atO .t[lep] .[piesi] .pOte[riO] .aut[ika] .kenon .hime[rOs] .[hair]esei .kallist[efan]O .aBrO[d]it[e]s
Slovensko: n/a
Opomba:
Ta napis iz 725-700 pred Kr. ni v stilu drugih napisov iz te skupine, če je verjeti prevodu. Predvsem je napisan v zgodnji stari grščini. Že iz tega stališča bi moral biti zanimiv, saj če je verjeti arheologom, je časovno eden najstarejših ohranjenih Grških napisov in je verjetno najbližji približek stari mikenski grščini, ter mora vsebovati tudi venetski odtis. Napis je zelo poškodovan in branje je zelo nezanesljivo! Paziti pa moramo tudi, da nas ne zmede napis, ki lahko napačno sugerira, da gre za Nestorjevo zlato skodelico ki jo je opisal Homer. Naša skodelica je nastala iz kupa lončenih črepinj!
English: n/a
Note:
This inscription is very damaged, and its reading is rather unreliable. In fact it doesn't truly belong among the rest of the inscriptions here which are of spiritual and sepulchral nature. Also, this pottery is of Greek and not Etruscan origin, or so they say!
Etrlgs: Nestor's cup was sweat to drink. But whoever drinks from this cup, immediately the desire for Aphrodite of the beautiful crown will size him"

 

All inscriptions group -     (vi-)
vi ..malu.veka.vi.sia.zili.ziXina.e.in.suOu.E.as
vi au.vi.sauXnate.vl
vi au.vi.vercn
vi au.vi.vercna.ceisial
vi av.vi.trazlu.cut[nal]
vi fasti.vi.capenati
vi ha.vi.harp
vi larOi.vi.upelsi.trazlunial
vi larO.vi.vercna.calisnal.clan
vi la.vi.upelsi.au.trazlunial
vi la.vi.varna.--ural
vi la.vi.velimna.ar
vi la.vi.vercna.atial
vi la.vi.vercna.vipiS.ve.calisnal
vi ..malu.veka.vi.sia.zili.ziXina.e.in.suOu.E.as
vi Oana.vi.raufiS
vi se.vi.ancari.uvilane
vi ..vi.Orie.vam.mertax-O
vipi arnO.vipi.auleS
vipi [a]rnO.vipi.rufe
vipi arnO.vipi.Sinu
vipi arnO.vipi.veluS
vipi arnO.vipi.vercnaS
vipi ar.vipi.alfa
vipi ar.vipi.[].cena
vipi ar.[vipi].crusle
vipi ar.vipi.luscesa
vipi ar.vipi.vuisinal.ar.vipi.vuis[i]nal
vipi as.vipi.pum
vipi ]ateS.vipi[
vipi aule.vipi.pupanaSiS
vipi au[le.vipi.u]pelsi.petrnial
vipi au.vipi.cafatial
vipi au.vipi.varna
vipi au.vipi.vercnaS
vipi az.vipi.titial
vipi clapiOi.vipi.O
vipi curia.vipi.ceisinal
vipi fasti.vipi.velimnaS.hermial.SeX
vipi laris.vipi.crusel
vipi larOi.vipi.ancariS
vipi larOi.vipi.aulni.Salvial
vipi larOi.vipi.la.tinS
vipi larOi.vipi.puia.titeS.satnaS.vatinial.Sec
vipi larOi.vipi.vercnei.atial;Ig:ERR[atial=atainal]
vipi lar.vipi.upelsi.petrnal
vipi la.vipi.vari
vipi la.vipi.vari.la
vipi lO.vipi.aO
vipi lO.vipi.leiXu.aO
vipi lr.vipi.venu.carpnatial
vipi lX.vipi.varna
vipi Oana.vipi.tetiS
vipi Oia.vipi.venu.vipinal.clan
vipi tcA04: ..Sum.pes.petruSta.sceva[].nuOanatur.lart.petruni .arnt.pini.lart.v[i]pi.lusce.laris.salini..
vipi veilia.vipi.upelsi.felcinatial
vipi vel.vipi.alfa
vipi vel.vipi.alfa.papa
vipi vel.vipi.ar
vipi vel.vipi.SauXnateS
vipi vel.vipi.seOra
vipi vel.vipi.velu.aOnu
vipi vel.vipi.vl.perisa[l
vipi ve.vipi.vercna.ve
vipi vipi.al.l
vipi vipi.ancariS
vipi vipi.apluS
vipi vipi.cai.var[
vipi ].vipiOenes.arnOal.svalce.avil.+lxxii+
vipi vipi.OeraS
vipi vipi.ramOa
vipi vipi.seinaS
vipi vipi.velimu.naS
vipi vipi.velOurS
vipi vipi.zerturi.parfnal
vipi vl.vipi.veru
vipi vl.vipi.vescu
vipia fa.vipia.rafiS
vipia larOia.vipia.Salvis.preXu
vipia larOi.veti.vipia
vipia nuna.vasieiOiarisviaiavineiaia.vipia.ipa.sev[]taqaiatari .pihueviait.linuvasni.SaOi.niase.mini.qapi.saranas.ziai
vipia Oana.vipia.titiz
vipia Oania.vipia.la.tantleS
vipia ramaOvipia.svalce.avil[]+ix+.-cevis.va[]ce;Ig
vipia veilia.vipia.puia.se.-alsuS;Ig?-alsuS=calsuS
vipia veilia.vipia.surnaS
vipia vipia.alSinas.turce.verSenas.calia
vipia vipia.apeinal
vipia vipia.aXinana.anFareS
vipia vipia.karmuniS
vipia vipia.larciS
vipia vipia.masui
vipia vipia.palnis
vipia vipia.sameruni.serturus.titeal.sec
vipia vipia.veteS
vipia zecunta.vipia
vipial ar.afle.veti.vipial;Ig:ERR[F=V]aVle
vipial ar.ciri.au.vipial
vipial ar.petruni.vipial
vipial ar.rafi.ar.vipial
vipial ar.tinS.ar.vipial
vipial au.petruni.vipial
vipial au.precu.la.vipial
vipial au.surna.au.vipial
vipial fa.casnia.au.vipial.trisnei.tucuntineS
vipial la.preXu.la.vipial.vepu
vipial larOial.SalviS.vipial
vipial larOial.vipial.mutna
vipial laturini.vipial
vipial la.velOurnaS.vipial
vipial Oana.rezui.ve.arzniS.vipial.SeX
vipial se.ti.vesi.ve.vipial.sehtmnal
vipialtra fl.supri.manince.[p|v]ipialtra.ulXnisla.c[l|u]z.tatanuS
vipias aO.caliti.vipias
vipiaS lO.pusca.seOreS.vipiaS
vipiaz la.tite.rafe.vipiaz
vipie ae.vipie.cultces
vipiesi larO.vipiesi
vipies ]ina.vipies.veOuz.velznalOi
vipiien mine.muluvanece.a.vile.vipiien.nas
vipin laOi.vipin[
vipin larOi.vipin[ei].ls.secuS.puia
vipina arnO.p[re]ste.vipina
vipina arnO.vipina.cuFre
vipina a.vipina.a.peinal
vipina Oana.preisnte.vipina[l]
vipina Oana.titia.vipina
vipina Oania.vipi-a[
vipina Oania.vipina.arnOal.pu[ia].pump[uS]
vipinal a.calisni.silu.a.vipinal
vipinal a.murina.[l]arOal.vipinal.craupznal
vipinal a.murina.[l]arOal.vipinal.craup.znal;Ig
vipinal aO.herine.vipinal.fufle
vipinal aO.septle.vl.vipinal
vipinal aO.vetie.vipinal
vipinal aO.visce.vipinal
vipinal ar.herine.vipinal.fup[le]
vipinal arnO.[a]ne.vipinal.arnalia
vipinal arnO.caule.vipinal
vipinal arnO.presnte.vipinal
vipinal aule.ceisu.vipinal.fulu
vipinal au.petru.vipinal
vipinal av.latini.av.vipinal
vipinal f.cacenei.ls.v[i]pinal
vipinal ha.apia.vipinal
vipinal --.herini.aO.vipinal
vipinal ]l.apice.vipi[nal]
vipinal lar.cezrtle.vipinal
vipinal larOi.felzneil.petruSl.petru.vipinal.uza
vipinal larO.tite.vipinal.venuniaS.lautni
vipinal larO.velcialu.larOal.vipinal
vipinal lart.haprni.larOal.vipi[nal]
vipinal lart.vetni.vipinal
vipinal l.ati.l.vipinal
vipinal l.marcni.l.vi[p]inal
vipinal lO.causlini.lO.vipinal
vipinal lO.septle.vipina[l]
vipinal lO.velcialu.vipinal.lupu
vipinal lO.velXite.vipinal
vipinal lr.petru.vipinal
vipinal ls.alfni.vipinal
vipinal Oana.secu[i]l.vipinal.Sec
vipinal Oia.vipi.venu.vipinal.clan
vipinal O.muria.vipinal
vipinal pe.haprni.vipinal.larOal
vipinal ]rce.ls.vipinal
vipinal vel.petruni.veluS.vipinal
vipinal vel.tlapu.aO.vipinal.clan
vipinal vl.ane.vl.vipinal
vipinal vl.tite.caOa.vl.vipinal
vipinal v.marcni.v.vipinal
vipinalc larO.vete.arnOal.vipinalc
vipinalisa aO.septle.lO.vipinalisa
vipinalisa larO.cae.arnOal.vipinalisa
vipinanal arnOunas.lr.lr.vipinanal.ravnOus.clan.ril.+xxvi+
vipinanas eca.mutna.arnOal.vipinanas.SeOreSla
vipinanas lar[].vipinanas.vel[O]ur.velOuru[s].+xi+.zilaXce
vipinanas vipinan[a]s.SeOre.velOur[u]s.meclasial.OanXvilus.avils.cis.cealXs;Ig
vipinanas vipinanas.vel.clante.ultnas.laOal.clan.avils.+xx+.tivrs.Sas
vipinanas vipinanas.velOur.ril.+vi+
vipinanas vipinanas.velOur.velOurus.avils.+xv+
vipinanei vipinanei.ravnOu
vipinas avle.vipinas
vipinas avle.vipinas.caclu.artile.caile.vipinas
vipinas avle.vipinas.venOica[u----]plsaXs
vipinas venOicau[].plsaXs.avle.vipinas
vipinei hastia.vipinei.verunia
vipinei larOia.vipinei.capznal
vipinei larOia.v[ipi]nei.capznalisa
vipinei larOia.vipinei.sviania.veluS
vipinei larOi.vipinei.leiXunia
vipinei larOi.vipinei.leiXunia.leOial.Sec
vipinei larti[a].vipinei.velOuriaS
vipine[i] lart[i].vipine[i]
vipinei lart[i].vipine[i]
vipinei Oana.vipinei
vipinei Oana.vipinei.her[
vipinei Oana.vipinei.pumpusa
vipinei Oana.vipinei.ranazunia.creicesa
vipinei Oania.vipinei.tutnasa
vipinei Oania.vipinei.venun[ia].larOal
vipinei Oa.vipinei.aO.velXesa
vipinei Oa.vipinei.leiXunia.h---neS
vipinei Oa.vipinei.venunia.taFusla
vipinei Oa.vipinei.venvn[i]a
vipinei vipinei.remznasa
vipinei vipinei.velXiteS
vipinei vipinei.venunia.purnisa
vipinei vipi]nei.venunia.vl
vipine laOi.vipine.venunia
vipine l.vipine.h
vipine Oa.vipine.taFusa
vipine vipine.ceicnasa
vipine vipine.cestnasa
vipine vipine.cumisa
vipinies larO.vipinies.vipe
vipini vipi[ni]
vipiOenes ].vipiOenes.arnOal.svalce.avil.+lxxii+
vipiOenes ]vipiOenes.ls
vipiOur heva.vipiOur.cucrinaOur.cainal
vipisa Oana.cupsnei.vipisa
vipisa velia.velXiti.vipisa
vipiS arnO.vipiS.SerturiS.puiac.mutainei
vipiS arnO.vipiS.vercnaS
vipiS aule.vipiS.larisal
vipiS au.vipiS.se.vatinial.clan
vipiS au.vipiS.se.vatinial.clan;Ig:ERR:[A=E]vEtinial
vipiS fasti.petruni.vipiS
vipiS hatrunia.l.vipiS.murinasa
vipiS laris.vipiS.crusl[e]S
vipiS larO.vipiS
vipiS larO.vipiS.varnaS.etera
vipiS larO.vipiS.vercna.setreS
vipiS la.vi.vercna.vipiS.ve.calisnal
vipiS l.vipiS.vetial.ls.veteS.papals
vipis Oana.satnei.uelus.uipis;Ig:[ERR?U=V]
vipiS Oana.velti.larOial.vipiS.varniS
vipiS Oana.vipiS.alfaS.veteS;Ig:[f=b]alfaS
vipiS Oansi.vipiS.lautni
vipiS seOre.vipiS.la.helvinatial
vipiS seOre.vipiS.vercnaS.calisnal
vipiS uhtave.velXeini.larOiia.vipiS.caspreS
vipiS veilia.maslnei.puia.laOial.vipiS.upelsiS
vipiS veilia.vipiS.acriS
vipitenes vipitenes.v.lr.[

 


Legend of symbols in Etruscan transcripts

Reading Etruscan transcripts is simple. A look at the table of symbols, at the end of this paragraph should suffice. Otherwise, a short narrative here, may straighten out a wrinkle or two. The only important thing to know is that the capital letter "O" represents a symbol with many meanings, namely it can be the read as Greek "theta"="th", which may have been seen by Etruscans sometimes as either "t" or "s" or sometimes simply as English letter "o". The later, namely, the simple "o" version, being an addition of Slovenian scholars to the Etruscologists way of reading. The capital letter "S" is for the english sound "sh", as in English word "shell", i.e. Slavic letter "Š". The capital letter "X" is used for either velars k, g, h, or palatal ch and for Greek khi. Square brackets "[ ], [...], [--a-]" usually indicate a damaged and missing text. A single square bracket means everything to the right of it (an open bracket "[") - may appear only at the end of the text, or to left of it (a closed bracket "]" - may appear only at the beginning of a text)

Symbols used in my Etruscan transcripts
Symbol Interpretation
"O" (capital o)th, t, s, o
"X" (capital x)k, g, h, ch
"S" (capital s)sh, (š)
"]" (R-bracket)missing / damaged text to the left of the inscription
"[" (L-bracket)missing / damaged text on the right of the inscription
" [ ] (brackets)"missing / damaged text between [ ]
" - " (dash)missing a single character
"x" (lower case x)missing a single character
"." (dot)delimiter between words
";" (semicolon)end of inscription - start of a comment
" " (space)ignore all spaces

 


 

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©2006,2007 Igor H. Pirnovar
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